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John Simmons Young

Military

Lieutenant John S. Young from Dallas Texas was a WWII B-24D Liberator bomber pilot with the 9th Air Force, the "Force For Freedom", the 98th Bomb Group the, "Pyramiders", and the 344th Bombing Squadron, based at Cairo, Egypt, Tobruk, and Benghazi, Libya, in early dark days of WWII in 1942-3. He flew on the desperate and deadly mission, Operation Tidal Wave, to destroy Hitler's oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania in 1943. He was assigned to fly with Group Commander Col. John R. (Killer) Kane in the 98th Bombing Group's lead aircraft, "Hail Columbia". Col. Kane, Lt. Young, and Col. Leon Johnson's 44th Bomb Group's planes, and Jack Wood's 389th Bomb Group's planes following them, successfully attacked and bombed their targets at Ploesti, including the Astra Romano oil refinery, code named, White IV, and also the Columbia Aquila refinery.

Before the Ploesti mission, John Young's personal plane had been the B-24D SN #41-11768, the "Kickapoo", which he named after the mythical and potent liquor, "Kickapoo Joy Juice" from Al Capp's "Li'l Abner" cartoon. From the time the 98th Bomb Group arrived in North Africa, in July, 1942, to August, 1943, it supported the British Eighth Army in it's westward advance to defeat and drive the German army out of North Africa, from Egypt into Libya and Tunisia. The Americans bombed Axis tactical land targets in the North African desert, shipping in the Mediterranean Sea, harbor installations, enemy ports, and port facilities in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, Crete, and Greece, to cut enemy supply lines to Africa, and to prepare for the Allied invasion of Italy. They often flew out alone or in small groups, unescorted, and often attacked by groups of Italian and German fighters. Casualties were heavy. On one of his missions, Young bombed, and damaged or sank a German submarine he caught on the water's surface. Another time, while flying over an Italian harbor he felt his bombardier, who hated the Italians, toggle two bombs into an Italian hospital ship with red crosses on it, as he flew over it. Young knew that ship was off limits and had been warned not to bomb it. He fully expected to be court martialed when he returned to Benghazi. However, several days later, when he was asked about the bombing and told intelligence what happened, they told him they had information that the ship had been running arms and supplies to the Germans. So, instead of being reprimanded, he was commended for the sinking ! On another occasion, Lt. Young's B-24 was caught alone and attacked over the Mediterranean Sea by eight German ME-109 fighter planes. For twenty minutes, Young and his crew engaged and fought the Germans in a running air battle, eight against one in a desperate defensive spiraling corkscrew descent down to the Mediterranean water's surface to rob the fighters of their vertical plane of attack. As the German fighters would make gunnery runs on his B-24, Young had his tail and waist gunners call the breaks for him over the intercom to "Break left, Big John !" or "Break right, Johnny !" so he could time and execute steep evasive turns into and inside of the approaching fighters just above the water's surface so his gunners could get passing shots at the enemy fighters as they overshot and flew past the tighter turning American B-24 bomber. His tactics worked well enough for Young's gunners to shoot down four of the attacking fighters and damaged two others before the remaining two German pilots decided they had had enough and disengaged. But not before they had damaged Young's B-24 so severely with their cannons that he couldn't make it back to land and had to ditch the plane in shallow water just off the beach on the island of Crete. He and his crew swam to shore where they were captured by Turkish soldiers and later released back to the British and returned to Benghazi. John Young was awarded the Bronze Star, and all of his crewmen were awarded their first Distinguished Flying Cross medals for that mission.

By the time the huge mission, Operation Tidal Wave, was announced, Lt. Young and his aircrew had survived 27 combat missions and had over 300 combat hours logged, more missions than the Army Air Force's 25 mission total requirement to earn a trip home. But the Ploesti mission was so critical that Young and his crew were held over, along with many other pilots and crewmen, who were badly needed to fly the mission. Col. Kane replaced the first copilot assigned to him for the mission, Mission Commander General Uzal Ent, who was known as a dangerously incompetent pilot, with the more capable and respected pilot, Lt. John Young, to fly as his copilot in his chosen airplane, which he named, "Hail Columbia", now designated the 98th Bombing Group's lead B-24. Kane also reassigned the rest of Young's regular crew, Lt. Norman Whalen, his navigator, Capt. Harry Korger, his bombardier, and the rest of "Kickapoo"'s crew to fly with him, all of whom were seasoned and proven to be very exceptional airmen. Lt. Young often said after the war that he was the command pilot on the Ploesti mission, and Kane was his copilot. Apparently, Col. Kane had John Young fly left seat for the mission's takeoff and during the long flight to Ploesti, then, switched seats with him as they approached Ploesti and the Romanian refineries, so Kane could take command of "Hail Columbia" and be fresh for combat and the flight over the target.

As planning and training for the mission progressed, and the day of the mission approached, the mood of the 98th and the other groups had become more and more melancholy. They had gradually learned from intelligence, just how deadly the ground defenses around Ploesti really were, and that Ploesti was the most heavily defended enemy city in Eastern Europe, next to Berlin. They knew that they would be attacking their targets in airplanes that were known for being fire traps, down as low as 20 feet, right on the deck, without any fighter support. To be hit at low level would rule out any hope for escape from their planes. For over a year, they had been bombing the Italians and Germans and taking heavy casualties in combat. And now they were facing flying against this very dangerous target on what could possibly be, even, a suicidal mission. Morale was bad and fading to worse than bad. The men were drinking heavily and fighting at night with the Australian and British personnel over in the Benghazi Hotel bar, inflicting and suffering serious injuries, causing complaints going up to the staff level. Several drunken American pilots had been seriously injured racing their German motorcycles around the Benghazi airbases at night. One drunken American pilot crashed a Stuka dive bomber, which had been left by the Germans and that the mechanics had rebuilt into flying condition, onto the airfield and nearly killed himself. These and other events convinced the mission planners and commanders that something had to be done. So, one evening, just before the mission, Gen. Brereton called the men from all the bombing groups into one of the very large aircraft maintenance tents and gave them a speech they would not forget. He said to them, " I have called you in tonight because we have a serious problem that can affect the success of the mission we must fly tomorrow, maybe the most important mission of this war. You already know now just how tough this mission is going to be. There is no denying it. You are thinking about home, your wives, your families, and loved ones. You're wondering if you will survive the mission and go home to see them again. Then, he said, "I have some bad news for you, and I want you to get this straight, right here and right now ! You can stop worrying about home because you are not going home, and you are not going to survive this mission. In fact, you're already dead ! You died when you signed up to fight this war. That's the hard truth you have to face ! So, everyone, get it straight tonight ! I'll give you the rest of the night to think about what I just told you. If you need to, write your families tonight and tell them whatever you need to say to them before we fly to Ploesti tomorrow. But, if you can't accept what I just told you, if you can't make peace with it, if you can't accept what we have to do and what the consequences will be, then you will not be able do your job, and and you will not be able to help us destroy the refineries at Ploesti, which is critical to winning this war ! If that's the case, then, come see me in my office in the morning, and I will relieve you of your duties, and we will find someone who can !" But the men knew there were few, if any, replacements. And many feared being left behind as much as they feared going. Finally, Brereton closed his speech and said, "If all of you do your job and bomb your targets tomorrow, it will be worth it, even if we lose every airplane !" Then, the men were dismissed. Col. John Kane wrote about that night in his autobiography about the war and the mission, about after Brereton's talk, how shocked and quiet the men were as they left the tent, and, afterwards, how somber the mood was over the entire airbase. No one slept very well that night, if at all. In the darkness, here and there, men could be heard crying. Col. Kane, who had been in on the intelligence, planning, and the training for the mission from the beginning, was among those convinced that he would not survive the mission. So were, pretty much, the rest of "Kickapoo"'s, and now "Hail Columbia"'s crew, including Johnny Young, Capt. Harold Korger, and Lt. Norm Whalen, both of whom wrote as much to their families that night. Kane also wrote farewell letters to his wife and his parents, as Brereton had suggested. John Young kept to himself and was quiet and grim, but resigned to whatever would come. He knew he had performed well on his previous missions. And he was determined to do so on this one. He wrote a letter home encouraging his parents that, if he didn't come home, he believed the sacrifice would be worth it. But, he had no one else, special, to write home and say farewell to. His parents had written him earlier and informed him that his high school sweetheart had married the son of a wealthy Texas oilman that she had met in college back east. It is hard to imagine how long and how dark that night must have been for John Young, or what effect it had on him. For so long, ever since he had come to North Africa, he had dreamed of surviving the war to go home and see her again. - But, now, there was no reason to hope or dream about any of those things, any more.

The next morning, during the mass take off in the dark for Ploesti, John Young's former airplane, "Kickapoo", overloaded with gas and bombs, lost it's #4 engine, a victim of the desert sand, which failed at the worst possible time just after breaking ground, and caught on fire, with two more engines failing in turn shortly thereafter, causing "Kickapoo" to crash in flames killing it's replacement pilot, Lt. Robert Nespor, his copilot, Lt. John Riley, and all but two of the rest of the crew, as Nespor fought to save and bring his crippled ship back for landing on the airbase runway. They were the very first casualties of the Ploesti mission before it had even started. But they would not be the last. By the end of the day nearly 500 more of the mission's airmen would be dead or missing.

As Col. Kane and Lt. Young in "Hail Columbia", leading the following 98th, the 44th, and the 389th Bombing Groups, including Lt. Robert Sternfels in his B-24D, "The Sandman", were approaching their first initial point coming into Ploesti, the situation ahead looked even worse than they could have imagined it would be. Even flying very low on the run into the refinery areas, as they began shooting and fighting with Ploesti's ground defenses, they could clearly see that their principal assigned target, the Astra Romano Refinery, code named, White IV, was already being bombed by remnants of 93rd Bomb Group, who had come in from the south and bombed ahead of them. It was already fiercely burning and obscured by thick black smoke from huge oil fires and explosions caused by the 93rd's bombs. "Good God, look at that !" one of the 98th's pilots reportedly said, looking out of the front of his windscreen, as Col. Kane, Lt. John Young, Col. Leon Johnson, the leader of the 44th Bombing Group, and Col. Jack Wood, leading the 389th Bomb Group, and the all of the pilots following them, now saw they were facing, not only, the full effects of the fully alerted German anti-aircraft defenses, already shooting at the attacking 93rd's B-24s, but also, huge fires, explosions, and secondary explosions caused by the bombs dropped twenty minutes earlier by Col. Addison Baker's 93rd Bomb Group, onto White IV, and the area around it, which was now covered with areas of black boiling smoke and flames, and explosions from the 93rd's delayed action 500 and 1000 pound bombs, exploding ahead of the 98th, and even underneath them, as they began the run into their, now, heavily compromised target.

South of them, Col. Walter Stewart had just taken over leading the 93rd after Col. Addison Baker and his copilot, Major John Jerstad in their B-24, "Hell's Wench", were shot down ahead of him and killed just minutes before, over the Columbia Aquila refinery, as they approached Kane's target, White IV, ahead of Kane's 98th Bombing Group, and out of synchronization with the attack plan. After bombing White IV, Major Stewart, in his B-24, "Utah Man", and the rest of the 93rd's planes following him, converged with, and flew right through the 98th's approaching formation in the chaos created by a catastrophically wrong turn away from Ploesti that had been ordered by Mission Commander, Gen. Uzal Ent and executed by his pilot, Col. Keith Compton, leading the 376th Bomb Group's formation, also south of Ploesti.

Still, Col. Kane in "Hail Columbia", Col. Leon Johnson, in his plane, "Suzie Q", and the rest of the 98th, the 44th, and the 389th's Bombing Groups, without discussion or hesitation, continued following their attack into Ploesti and White IV's wall of smoke and the burning hell of the flames, explosions, and the flak guns ! They all were determined to accomplish their mission, or "die trying", as Col. Baker had promised he would do the day before ! And Col. Baker, his copilot, Major John Jerstad, and their crew did "die trying" when his bomber, "Hell's Wench", was hit multiple times by deadly flak rounds, caught on fire and crashed in flames at the Columbia Aquila refinery, killing everyone on board.

All of this madness was caused, in part, because south of Ploesti, Mission Commander Gen. Ent, for reasons best known to himself, had deliberately failed to continue flying north toward Ploesti at his second initial point outside the city ! Instead of staying on course north to bomb his assigned target, he had ordered his pilot, Col. Keith Compton in their B-24, named both, "Teggie Ann" on one side and on the other side, "The Blue Streak", to turn east towards Bucharest and refused to answer the desperate radio calls from both Col. Walter Stewart in "Utah Man" just behind him in the 93rd Bomb Group and the calls on his intercom from his own navigator, Capt. Harold Wicklund, warning Compton and Ent that they had made a disastrously wrong turn away from Ploesti ! Col. Baker, behind them, had also seen the wrong turn. He followed Ent for awhile and, then, according to his promise, he decided to attack the refineries on his own, just like he had said he would, and turned north, away from the rest of the 376th toward Ploesti ! Major Stewart was in shock and disbelief at what he had just seen Ent and Compton do, and also disobeyed his attack plan orders to stay with his group, and followed Col. Baker, all of them determined to attack Ploesti on their own initiative, in spite of Compton's inexplicable, wrong turn away from their target.

But Col. Compton with General Ent in "Teggie Ann" / "The Blue Streak", twenty minutes after having turned east toward Bucharest, and still leading the 376th planes that were still following them, were circling around Ploesti south and east of the city, instead of flying their attack plan. They could see off to their left, thousands of the green German flak tracer rounds streaming into the sky, like fireworks. They could see the smoke, the explosions and the fires of the exploding bombs dropped by the 93rd Bomb Group. And they could see the 93rd's planes, and also the 98th, the 44th bombing groups' planes being shot out of the sky by the defending flak guns. And they could see the American airplanes burning, exploding, and crashing into the ground over and south of Ploesti's refinery area.

Major Norman Appold in "G.I. Ginnie", his wingman, Lt. John Palm, piloting the "Brewery Wagon", and two other ships in the 376th Bomb Group's formation, had also seen the mistaken turn that Compton and Ent had made and had quickly decided that they, too, would attack Ploesti on their own. So they also disobeyed their orders to stay with their assigned formation and also left the main 376th Bomb Group, and turned their planes left, back to the north, with their four plane section, looking for targets of opportunity to bomb. On their run in, they decided on Target White II, the Concordia Vega Refinery, Col. Addison Baker's assigned target. After attacking White II, Appold's surviving planes and the 93rd's planes, now fleeing the area, also, passed through Killer Kane’s 98th and 44th Bomb Groups heading for White IV. The confusion resulted in ongoing moments of terror and violent maneuvering as three layers of formations of B-24 bombers from the 98th, the 44th, the 93rd, and Major Appold's planes from the 376th Bomb Group, all tried to avoid midair collisions with each other's planes as the converging planes all flew through Col. Kane's formation from two different directions in the mad confusion of the broken mission that Operation Tidal Wave had become - in part, because of Keith Compton's and Gen. Ent's actions.

Lt. John Palm had drawn a jinxed plane for the mission, the "Brewery Wagon", and was one of the rogue pilots from the 376th Bomb Group, who elected to turn away from Bucharest toward Ploesti, and was also heading for a target of opportunity at treetop level and 190 miles per hour. But he never made it that far. After being hit multiple times with flak and having to release his bombs just to keep his staggering ship in the air, he suffered a direct 88mm explosive flak hit on "Brewery Wagon"'s nose, instantly killing his navigator and his bombardier. Now, with his plane failing, on fire, and himself seriously wounded, with his right leg nearly blown off, and being attacked by ME-109s, Lt. Palm crash landed his failing B-24 into an open field, to be captured alive, along with only three other surviving crew members.

Col. Kane and Lt. John Young, leading the 98th and the 44th Bomb Groups, and their followers, pulled up to 200 feet to clear the smoke stacks of the Astra Romano's refineries ahead and pressed home their attack, strafing the flak guns on the ground ahead of them with the two extra fixed .50 cal. machine guns on each side of their B-24's nose, with their gunners also raking the enemy's flak guns forward from the top turret, and out of the sides and back of their B-24. All this time, Kane and Young fought and struggled to fly their airplane. Kane wrote after the mission that it took all of his and Young's combined arm strength to manhandle "Hail Columbia"'s flight control yokes to control the pitching, bucking, rolling, shaking, and vibrating monster that "Hail Columbia" had become over their target at low altitude, in and out of the huge updrafts from fires and wake turbulence from the other planes flying through White IV's airspace with flames, smoke, and explosions all around and under them, while fighting to keep their bomber in the air and away from the ground, and from hitting the many obstacles in their way, including the other American B-24 bombers flying through their formation. At the same time, Kane and Young were watching their friends being shot down all around them, one after another, as they were being hit by the deadly flak rounds, catching on fire simply by flying through the 200 foot high flames, hitting the barrage balloon cables, and being blown up from both the flak rounds and the explosions from the 93rd's delayed action bombs and, then, crashing into the oil tanks and the refinery buildings on the ground. Norm Whalen was also watching all of this carnage out of his forward nose position and later wrote after the mission, "I thought I was going to die right there. I thought we all were. I never thought we could make it out of there alive !". Kane flew "Hail Columbia" right through a huge column of boiling flames, which reached up even higher than his plane's 200 feet altitude and burned his left arm resting on the bomber's left side sliding window sill. Yet, somehow, the flames did not ignite the gasoline leaking from "Hail Columbia'''s wings and the fumes inside it's fuselage. "Hail Columbia", like all the rest of the 44th's and 98th's planes, was also being hit hard by the German flak guns shooting at them at almost point blank range. The German gunners hit and destroyed their #4 engine. As Young feathered the #4 engine's propeller, their #3 engine's propeller was also hit and began vibrating. Then, a third engine on the left side was hit and damaged. With things going south in a hurry for the men in "Hail Columbia", one engine out, and two more damaged, coming out of the burning hell of White IV and the heavy flak area south of White IV, somehow, "Hail Columbia" and her crew were still flying, still alive, uninjured, and fighting to stay alive ! And, also, by some miracle, Harry Korger was able to drop his bombs on the Astra Romano refinery area, but missed hitting anything important. They had been flying through the destruction over the greater Ploesti area for almost an hour, probably, the longest hour of their lives.

In marked contrast, after having been in the area for over 20 minutes, Col. Compton, Gen. Ent, and the main force of the 376th, who stayed with them, finally, salvoed their bombs harmlessly over the hills north of Ploesti and headed west for home, relatively undamaged and intact.

But not so intact were the men in "Hail Columbia" and the planes of the rest of the 98th, the 44th, the 389th Bombing Groups, and the rogue planes from the 93rd and the 376th Bombing Group led by Major Norman Appold and Lt. John Palm, that had been thoroughly decimated by the German defenses over their targets. As these remnant survivors were still trying to escape the area, they were attacked by the waiting, high flying German and Romanian fighters, who dove down on them, and shot down even more of the American airplanes. Kane and John Young again executed steep defensive turns, staying low in order to throw off the fighter planes' aim, and avoided being hit by them. Several survivor planes, including Lt. Robert Sternfels in "The Sandman" and Col. Walter Stewart in "Utah Man" joined up with "Hail Columbia" with it's excellent lead navigator, Lt. Norman "The Baron" Whalen, who navigated these survivors all the way out of Ploesti and Romania, and on over the Pindus mountains to the Mediterranean Sea, then, south, all the way to the British air base at Nicosia, on the Greek island of Cyprus, where the few planes still flying, who had made it that far, landed, and "Hail Columbia"'s two exhausted pilots crash landed their crippled bomber on the airbase's runway long after dark.

Of the 177 planes that took off from Benghazi, only 88 aircraft made it back to Benghazi, 55 of those with damage so severe they would never fly again. Of the 47 planes of Kane's 98th and 44th Bomb Groups that launched to Ploesti, only 27 B-24s returned from the mission. Seventeen of Kane's 98th and 44th Bomb Group planes were shot down over enemy territory. Two went down at sea with the loss of their crews. One plane, John Young's B-24D, "Kickapoo", crashed in flames on takeoff at Benghazi, killing most of it's replacement crew. The 98th and the 44th Bomb Groups suffered 46 percent casualties on the Ploesti mission. A total of 444 American airmen on the mission were killed in action, with 220 more airmen captured or missing. Fifty-four aircraft and 532 total crewmen were killed or lost from all causes.

For John Young, Ploesti was his 28th and last combat mission of the war. But, for the men who died, and even for the men who survived the mission, "Black Sunday" was an appropriate name given to that black day, by historian Michael Hill, a day that saw so many American flyer's killed, wounded, and lost, having suffered the most casualties ever, on a single U.S. Army Air Force bombing mission, before, or since, that terrible day.

For his part in leading his three groups on the mission, Col. John Kane received one of 5 Medals Of Honor awarded for the mission, 3 of them to men who paid for them with their lives. For his part in the mission, Lt. John S. Young received one of 41 Silver Star Medals awarded for the mission and another oak leaf cluster to his Distinguished Flying Cross, with 1,320 total DFC Medals awarded, one to every single man who flew on the mission and survived, and also to those who flew and paid for their medals with their lives, as did 27 year old Lt. Robert Nespor, the young pilot who died trying to save "Kickapoo" in Johnny Young's place. Lt. Norman Whalen received one of 50 Distinguished Service Crosses for his bravery and his excellent navigating on the mission, as did Col. Walter Stewart for his leadership after his group leader, Col. Addison Baker was shot down and killed, and Lt. Robert Sternfels in "The Sandman", both of whom also landed safely just ahead of and behind "Hail Columbia" at Nicosia, Cyprus, and gave both Col. Kane and Lt. Young a ride back to Benghazi.

Col. John Kane, Lt. John Young, Capt. Harold Korger, Lt. Norman Whalen, Col. Leon Johnson, Major Walter Stewart, and Lt. Robert Sternfels all survived the Ploesti mission and the war. After the mission, John Young returned home to America, was promoted to Captain, and served on a war bond tour across America. He continued to serve as a flying officer until he was honorably discharged from the Army Air Corps in 1946 with the rank of Major. He died in 1983.

Service

People

  • Addison Baker

    Military | Lieutenant Colonel | Air Group Commander / Command Pilot | 376th Bomb Group
    Col. Addison Baker was the Commanding Officer of the 93rd Bomb Group, 8th Air Force from May 17, 1943 to August, 1943. Baker's Bomb Group, the 93rd, was one of three bomb groups from the Eighth Air Force in Britain that were sent to Benghazi, Libya to...

  • Lewis Brereton

    Military | Lieutenant General | Commanding General
    Lewis Hyde Brereton (June 21, 1890 – July 20, 1967) was a military aviation pioneer and lieutenant general in the United States Air Force. A 1911 graduate of the United States Naval Academy, he began his military career as a United States Army officer...

  • Keith Compton

    Military | General | B-24 Command Pilot - Squadron Commander - Commanding Officer | 376th Bomb Group
    Keith Karl Compton (December 9, 1915 – June 15, 2004) was an American Air Force Lieutenant General who was Vice Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command. He flew as Command Pilot with Gen. Uzal Ent on Operation Tidal Wave over the Ploesti oil...

  • Uzal Ent

    Military | Major General | Commanding General | 376th Bomb Group
    Uzal Girard Ent was an American Army Air Forces officer who served as the commander of the Ninth and subsequently Second Air Force during World War II. Flew on the Aug 1, 1943 Ploesti oil refinery raid. In October 1944, was seriously injured in the...

  • Leon Johnson

    Military | Brigadier General | Pilot; Commanding Officer | 44th Bomb Group The Flying Eightballs
    Superior leadership during the Ploesti raid 1 August 1943 in B-24 #41-23817 'Suzy Q. ' ...

  • John Kane

    Military | Colonel | B-24 Command Pilot - 98th Bomb Group Commander | 98th Bomb Group
    John Riley Kane (January 5, 1907 – May 29, 1996) was a colonel in the United States Army Air Corps and later the United States Air Force. He received the U.S. military's highest decoration, the Congressional Medal of Honor, in World War II, for his...

  • Harold Korger

    Military | Colonel | Bombardier | 98th Bomb Group
    Lt. Harold Korger was a bombardier in the 344th Bombardment Squadron, 98th Bomb Group, 9th AF on Capt. John Young's crew in a B-24 named 'Kickapoo'. He graduated from Bombardier School at Midland Field in 1942 and was commissioned a 2nd Lt. In February...

  • Robert Nespor

    Military | First Lieutenant | Pilot | 93rd Bomb Group
    Lt. Robert J. Nespor - A B24D bomber pilot in the 330th Bomb Squadron, the 93rd Bombing Group, and the 376th Bombing Group, and the 9th Air Force. For Operation Tidal Wave, Aug 1, 1943, Lt. Nespor was assigned to fly Lt. John S. Young's regular...

  • John Palm

    Military | First Lieutenant | Pilot | 376th Bomb Group
    B-24

  • John Riley

    Military | Second Lieutenant | Pilot B-24D
    Lt. John Riley lost his life, as one of the first casualties of "Operation Tidal Wave" on August 1st, 1943, one of the biggest, most important, and most daring air raids of WWII, coming in at tree top level to destroy the Germans' Romanian oil...

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Units served with

  • 344th Bomb Squadron

    344th Bomb Squadron


    Established as a B-24 Liberator heavy bomb squadron and trained by Third Air Force. Deployed to Egypt in June 1942 over South Atlantic Transport Route transiting from Morrison Field, Florida though the Caribbean to Brazil; performed trans-Atlantic...

  • 376th Bomb Group

    376th Bomb Group

    Group
    Constituted as 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 Oct 1942 and activated in Palestine on 31 Oct. Began combat immediately, using B-24 aircraft. Operated with Ninth AF from bases in the Middle East, Nov 1942-Sep 1943, and with Twelfth AF from Tunisia...

  • 44th Bomb Group The Flying Eightballs

    44th Bomb Group The Flying Eightballs

    Group
    The 44th Bombardment Group (Heavy) was activated 15-January-1942 at McDill Field, Florida and equipped with B-24Cs. The Group moved to Barksdale Field, Louisiana and acted as a training unit for the 90th 93rd and 98th Bomb Groups and flew anti...

  • 98th Bomb Group

    98th Bomb Group

    Group
    The 98th trained for bombardment missions with B-24 Liberators during the first half of 1942. ...

Aircraft

  • 41-11613 'Florine Ju Ju' 'Teggie Ann' 'Blue Streak'

    B-24 Liberator
    B-24D 41-11613 "The Blue Streak" of 514th BS, 376th BG, 9th AF. Originally named "Florine Ju Ju" then 'Teggie Ann'. She was a member of the HALPRO group that eventually became the 376th Bomb Group. The aircraft was a veteran of the first high level...

  • 41-23817 'Suzy Q'

    B-24 Liberator
    SUZY-Q, the most famous ship of the 67th Squadron had led the Group on the 1st Aug 43 Ploesti raid. The plane was lost on 16 Aug 1943 on a mission to the north airfield at Foggia, Italy. The plane intercepted by Me 109 fighters and was last seen...

  • 42-40402 The Sandman

    B-24 Liberator
    Crew of "The Sandman" on the Ploesti raid: ...

  • 41-24294 'Brewery Wagon'

    B-24 Liberator
    Shot down by a Me-109 over Ploesti. Two of the crew KIA, eight became POW's. MACR 154 ...

  • 41-11825 'Hail Columbia' 'Grumpy' 'Little Chief Big Dog'

    B-24 Liberator
    This aircraft originally served in the 344th BS as 'HAIL COLUMBIA'. It was 344th CO Col. John R. Kane's personal aircraft until Kane became 98th BG CO and turned it over to Herman "Big-Dog" Lewis. Lewis changed the right side nose art to 'LITTLE-CHIEF...

  • 41-11768 Kickapoo

    B-24 Liberator
    B-24 liberator #41-11768, 'Kickapoo', of the 344th Bombing Squadron, 98th Bomb Group, 9th Air Force. This was Lt. John S. Young's second regular aircraft after he lost his first B-24 in theater, which was shot down earlier in 1943 in an air fight near...

  • 42-40657 'G I Ginnie'

    B-24 Liberator
    B-24 Liberator #42-40657 'G I Ginnie', 514th BS, 376th BG, 9th AF, flew on 1st Aug 43 Ploesti oil refinery raid piloted by Norman C Appold, returning safely to Libya. ...

Missions

  • Operation Tidal Wave

    1 August 1943
    Operation TIDAL WAVE. B24D Liberators attack the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania. The bombers flew low to avoid radar detection and dropped time delayed bombs. Out of the 177 B24Ds that took part in the raid 167 managed to attack their targets. 57...

Associated Place

Events

Event Location Date

Revisions

Date Contributor Update
22 April 2019 22:30:41 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Brandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young - Personal Archives ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
22 April 2019 20:25:01 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
22 April 2019 18:54:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 April 2019 22:39:22 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 April 2019 22:26:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
11 April 2019 04:21:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
11 April 2019 04:08:43 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
10 April 2019 11:07:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
10 April 2019 10:05:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Brandenberg - Black Sunday - Michael Hill - Into The fire - Duane Schults Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
02 April 2019 02:20:03 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ------ Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ IntoThe Fire - Duane Schultz ----- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
02 April 2019 02:06:38 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ------ Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ IntoThe Fire - Duane Schultz ----- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
02 April 2019 01:38:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ------ Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ IntoThe Fire - Duane Schultz ----- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
31 March 2019 03:59:37 Kickapoo Changes to role and biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 20:42:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 20:33:48 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 09:16:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 09:01:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 08:39:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 07:57:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
19 March 2019 08:45:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
19 March 2019 06:07:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:16:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:09:03 Kickapoo Changes to aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:05:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography and aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:00:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 12:56:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography and aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 04:01:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 11:01:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 10:39:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 10:30:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 10:16:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 09:48:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 09:19:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 02:50:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:43:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:36:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:28:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:13:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 20:14:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

loesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 19:58:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 19:43:25 Kickapoo Changes to role and biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 19:35:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:37:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:28:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:24:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:05:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 02:42:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
07 March 2019 08:59:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
07 March 2019 08:17:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
03 March 2019 02:40:27 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
03 March 2019 02:38:24 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
03 March 2019 02:30:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 March 2019 02:18:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 March 2019 01:27:11 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 March 2019 00:14:07 Kickapoo Changes to person associations
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet Gen, Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 February 2019 04:44:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen Hoyt Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
26 February 2019 13:26:03 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti : Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
25 February 2019 09:26:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti : Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
25 February 2019 09:17:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti : Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 04:30:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Jr - History,net Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 04:15:02 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Jr - History,net Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 04:09:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Jr - History,net Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 01:04:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr. - Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 00:15:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr. - Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
21 February 2019 22:17:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy of A Disaster - Hoyt Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
21 February 2019 03:32:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 February 2019 21:30:33 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
19 February 2019 21:18:43 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
19 February 2019 07:09:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 06:18:15 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 06:10:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:52:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S, Vandenberg, Jr. Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:30:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Historynet - Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr. Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:18:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
16 February 2019 04:21:40 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
16 February 2019 04:01:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
15 February 2019 10:17:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
15 February 2019 10:08:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
15 February 2019 09:30:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:45:53 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:43:02 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:36:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:30:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:27:01 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:25:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 22:46:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 17:40:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 17:34:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 17:02:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 16:58:57 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 10:12:27 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 10:06:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 09:56:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 09:25:03 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 13:43:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 13:20:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 00:24:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 00:10:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:56:24 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:39:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:23:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Persdonal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:17:51 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:13:26 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:10:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:08:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 22:45:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 22:42:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 21:57:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 05:41:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 05:33:38 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 05:04:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:27:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:24:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:21:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:19:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
23 January 2019 05:48:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
23 January 2019 05:05:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
23 January 2019 04:45:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal papers

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 05:00:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 04:50:51 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill personal archives

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 04:39:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 04:15:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 06:53:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 06:28:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 06:07:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 05:33:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:57:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:47:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:32:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:05:29 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 05:35:46 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 01:54:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 04:02:09 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 03:57:50 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 03:45:55 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 03:18:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:53:43 Kickapoo Changes to person associations and unit associations
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal collections

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:38:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collection

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:07:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and personal collection

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:05:12 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collection

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:02:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collections

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 07:08:53 Kickapoo Changes to biography and person associations
Sources

Black Subday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 06:56:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 06:50:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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black sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 01:14:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 November 2018 04:17:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 November 2018 03:55:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 November 2018 02:42:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:24:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:19:02 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:17:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:13:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:10:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 13:59:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 13:50:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 08:42:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 08:33:40 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 October 2018 05:33:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
17 October 2018 05:30:09 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
15 October 2018 03:38:41 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
15 October 2018 03:24:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
12 October 2018 04:29:26 Kickapoo Changes to media associations
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
12 October 2018 03:32:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
11 October 2018 01:03:38 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
11 October 2018 00:44:54 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
04 October 2018 03:20:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
04 October 2018 03:09:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
25 September 2018 16:06:15 Kickapoo Changes to awards
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 20:20:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 20:10:46 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 19:37:41 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 18:12:35 Kickapoo Changes to role
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 18:08:59 Kickapoo Changes to awards
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Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 17:57:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:27:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:21:25 Kickapoo Changes to awards
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:11:23 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 September 2018 10:53:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 19:49:34 Kickapoo Changes to nickname and biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 19:44:03 Kickapoo Changes to nickname, biography and awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 18:37:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 09:14:55 Kickapoo Changes to media associations
Sources

Black Sunday-Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 08:54:26 Kickapoo Changes to service number, biography, awards and place associations
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Black Sunday- Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 August 2018 00:15:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 August 2018 00:09:20 Kickapoo Changes to nickname, role, unit associations and aircraft associations
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 August 2018 18:20:58 Kickapoo Created entry with surname, middlename, firstname, nickname, nationality, highest rank, role, person associations, unit associations, place associations, aircraft associations and mission associations
Sources

Black Sunday : Ploesti Michael Hill

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