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John Simmons Young

Military

Lieutenant John S. Young from Dallas Texas was a WWII B-24D Liberator bomber pilot with the 9th Air Force, the "Force For Freedom", the 98th Bomb Group the, "Pyramiders""Force For Freedom", and the 344th Bombing Squadron, the , based at Cairo, Egypt, Tobruk, and Benghazi, Libya, in early dark days of WWII in 1942-3. He flew on the desperate and deadly mission, Operation Tidal Wave, to destroy Hitler's oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania in 1943. He was assigned to fly with Group Commander Col. John R. (Killer) Kane in the 98th Bombing Group's lead aircraft, Hail Columbia. Col. Kane, Lt. Young, and all of the 44th Bomb Group's planes following them, successfully attacked and bombed their targets, including the Astra Romano oil refinery, code named, White IV, and also the Columbia Aquila refinery.

Before the Ploesti mission, John Young's personal plane had been the B-24D SN #41-11768, the "Kickapoo", which he named after "Kickapoo Joy Juice" from Al Capp's "Dogpatch" cartoon. From the time the 98th Bomb Group arrived in North Africa, in July, 1942, to August, 1943, it supported the British Eighth Army in North Africa in its westward advance from Egypt into Libya and Tunisia. It bombed axis shipping in the Mediterranian Sea, harbor installations and enemy ports, and port facilities in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, Crete, and Greece to cut enemy supply lines to Africa and to prepare for the Allied invasion of Italy. They flew alone or in small groups, unescorted, and often attacked by Italian and German fighters. Casualties were heavy. On one occasion, Lt. Young's B-24 was attacked over the Mediterranean Sea by eight German ME-109 fighter planes. For over twenty minutes they engaged in a running air fight. Young and his crew fought them, desperately and alone, in a spiraling defensive corkscrew descent down to the Mediterranean water's surface. As the German pilots made gunnery runs on his B-24, Young's tail and waist gunners called the breaks for him over the intercom to "Break left, Johnny !" or "Break right, Big John !" so Lt. Young could time pulling his turns inside of the approaching fighters so his gunners could get passing shots at them as they flew over or past Young's tighter turning B-24. His gunners shot down four of the attacking fighters before the remaining two German flyers had enough and disengaged, but not before they had damaged the American B-24 so badly that Young had to ditch it in shallow water just off the beach of the island of Crete. He and his crew swam to shore where they were captured by Turkish soldiers and later released back to the British and returned to Benghazi. John Young and all of his crewmen were awarded their first Distinguished Flying Cross Medals for that mission.

By the time Operation Tidal Wave was announced, John Young and his aircrew had flown and survived 27 combat missions and over 300 combat hours, more than the Army Air Force's 25 mission requirement to earn a trip home. But the mission was deemed so critical, Col. Kane held him over with many other pilots and crewmen who were badly needed to help fly the Ploesti mission. For the mission, Kane, replaced the first copilot assigned to him, mission commander, General Uzal Ent, who was well known as a dangerously incompetent pilot, with the more experienced, capable, and respected Johnny Young, to fly with him as his copilot in Hail Columbia, the 98th Bomb Group's lead B-24, along with all of Young's regular crew, Lt. Norman Whalen, his navigator, Capt. Harry Korger, his bombardier, and the rest of Kickapoo's old crew, all of whom were exceptional airmen.

Shortly after taking off for the Ploesti mission, Young's former airplane, Kickapoo, with an assigned replacement crew from the 376th Bomb Group, had it's number four engine fail and catch on fire, with two more engines failing in turn, shortly thereafter, causing Kickapoo's replacement pilot, 27 year old Lt. Robert Nespor, to crash in flames after he and his copilot bravely fought a losing battle trying to save their valuable but stricken airplane and land back on the field at Benghazi, killing Lt. Nespor, his copilot, Lt. John Riley, and all but two of the rest of the replacement crew. They were the very first casualties of the Ploesti mission. But they would not be the last.

As Hail Columbia and the following 98th and 44th Bomb Groups approached Ploesti at their first initial point, their assigned target, the Astra Romano Refinery, code named, White IV, was already in carnage and chaos, burning and obscured by smoke and fire, having already been bombed by the remnants of 93rd Bomb Group led by Walter Stewart after the 93rd Bomb Group leader, Col. Addison Baker and Major John Jerstad in their B-24, Hell's Wench, were shot down and killed over the Columbia Aquila refinery as they made their attack on White IV from the south out of synch and not according to the attack plan. Both Col. Kane and Col. Leon Johnsona, leader of the 44th Bomb Group now saw they were facing the full effects of the alerted German anti-aircraft defenses, along with huge fires, explosions, and secondary explosions caused by the time-delayed bombs dropped earlier by Baker's 93rd Bomb Group, onto Kane's target, White IV, which was now a black wall of boiling smoke, flames and explosions from the 93rd's bombs exploding around, ahead of, and even underneath them. The remnants of the 93rd, now being led by Col. Baker's second in command, Major Walter Stewart, in his B-24, Utah Man, converged with, and flew right through the 98th's approaching formation in the confusion and chaos created by a catastrophically wrong turn away from Ploesti, ordered by Mission Commander, Gen. Uzal Ent and his pilot, Col. Keith Compton, leading the 376th Bomb Group's formation south of Ploesti. Still, Col. Kane in Hail Columbia, Col. Leon Johnson, and the rest of the 98th and the 44th Bomb Groups, followed their attack plan, all without hesitation, and made their attack into White IV's boiling wall of smoke and the burning hell of an inferno of fire, explosions, and flak, in order to accomplish their mission, or "die trying", as Col. Baker had promised he would do! And he did "die trying" when his already burning bomber, Hell's Wench, was hit multiple times by deadly flak, caught fire and crashed in flames at the Columbia Aquila refinery.

However, south of Ploesti, Mission Commander Gen. Ent, had deliberately failed to turn toward Ploesti at his second initial point outside the city! Instead of staying on course north to attack his assigned target, he ordered Col. Keith Compton to turn east towards Bucharest and refused to answer the desperate radio calls from Walter Stewart in Utah Man just behind him in the 93rd Bomb Group, warning him that he had made a wrong turn away from Ploesti. Stewart, in disbelief of what he had just seen, turned north with his leader, Col. Addison Baker and his copilot, Major John Jerstad, in order to attack Ploesti on their own initiative.

But Col. Compton, General Ent in their plane,Teggie Ann, leading the 376th planes still following them, were still circling around Ploesti south of the city, instead of attacking. They could see off to their left, the smoke and fires of the exploding bombs dropped by Col. Baker's 93rd Bomb Group, as well as their planes, burning, exploding, and being shot down over Ploesti's refinery area.

In contrast to Ent, Major Norman Appold and his wingman, Lt. John Palm, piloting the Brewery Wagon, also in the 376th Bomb Group's formation, also having seen the mistaken turn that Compton and Ent had made, both decided that they, like Addison Baker, were also unwilling to fail to attack and disobeyed their attack orders to stay with their formation, peeled off to the left, and also turned north, away Ent's main 376th Bomb Group formation, and flew back northwest toward Ploesti, looking to bomb targets of opportunity. Major Appold decided on, and attacked White II, the Concordia Vega refinery. After attacking, both Appold's and Palm's planes also crossed the inbound path of Killer Kane’s 98th and 44th Bomb Groups headed for Target White IV. This resulted in the moments of terror and violent maneuvering as three layers of formations of planes from the 98th, the 44th, the 93rd, and Appold and Palm's planes from the 376th Bomb Groups, all tried to avoid midair collisions with each other's planes when the converging planes all flew right through Col. Kane's formation from two different directions, in the mad confusion of the broken mission that Operation Tidal Wave had become. Palm, heading for a target at treetop level, after releasing his bombs, suffered a direct flak hit on Brewery Wagon's nose by an 88 mm shell, killing the bombardier and his navigator, Lieutenant Wilson, who had brought his group to the target. Down to three engines, seriously wounded and attacked by ME-109s, Lt. Palm managed to crash land his aircraft into an open field, only to be captured, along with only three other surviving crew members.

After climbing up to a 200 foot altitude to clear the smoke stacks of the refineries, Col Kane and John Young leading the 98th and the 44th Bomb Groups, and their followers, pressed home their attack, strafing the flak guns in their way, and bombing White IV as best they could in the burning carnage, chaos, and confusion. Kane wrote after the mission that it took all of his and Young's combined arm strength to manhandle the flight control yokes to control and fly the pitching, bucking, rolling, shaking, and vibrating monster that Hail Columbia became at low altitude in the firestorm and wake turbulence from the other planes over White IV's blinding smoke, flames, and explosions all around and under Hail Columbia, while fighting to keep Hail Columbia in the air and away from the other bombers flying through their formation. At the same time, Kane and Lt. Young watched in shock and horror, as their friends and their airplanes around them were being shot to pieces by the deadly flak, exploding and catching on fire, trailing sheets of flame, hitting the barrage balloon cables, and being blown up in the smoke and flames by the 93rd's delayed action bomb explosions around and even inside the burning oil tanks, burning and crashing into the oil tanks and the refinery buildings on the ground. Hail Columbia, like the other planes, was also being heavily hit and damaged by the German flak guns, which hit and destroyed their #4 engine. Norm Whalen in Hail Columbia was also watching the carnage out of his forward nose position, and wrote after the mission, "I thought I was going to die. I thought we all were. I never thought we'd make it out of there alive." After young feathered the #4 engine, Hail Columbia's #3 engine's propeller tip was hit, holed, and began vibrating badly. Another engine on the left was hit and began trailing fluid. Yet, coming out of the burning hell in, and south of, White IV, miraculously, Kane, Young, Whalen, Korger, and Hail Columbia's crew, somehow, were still alive and fighting, and, by some miracle, had found and bombed their their target.

But, after having been in the area for over 20 minutes without attacking, Col. Compton and Gen. Ent, and the main force of the 376th, never attacked any targets and, finally, salvoed their bombs harmlessly over the hills north of Ploesti and headed west for home, completely unscathed.

But not so unscathed was Hail Columbia, and the rest of the 98th, the 44th, the 93rd Bombing Groups, and the rogue planes led by Major Appold from the 376th Bombing groups, having been thoroughly decimated by the flak guns, exploding bombs, and barrage balloon cables over their targets and in the worst of the flak areas south of the refineries. Just as they were escaping the area, they all had to desperately maneuver their damaged bombers again, just twenty to fifty feet above the ground trying to avoid the air defense Romanian and German fighter planes diving down on them and savaging the escaping Americans with their cannons and machine guns and shooting down even more of the crippled planes. When the fighters finally disengaged and flew away from the surviving B-24s, what was left of Hail Columbia and the rest of the smoking and battered survivor B-24s were leaving Ploesti behind them, when four more B-24 survivor planes, also flying with engines out, slow, and trailing smoke, joined up with Hail Columbia with it's excellent lead navigator, Lt. Norman Whalen, who led most of these surviving planes all the way out of Romania, on over the mountains to the Mediterranean Sea, and, then, south to the British air base at Nicosia, Cyprus, where Hail Columbia's two exhausted pilots crash landed their crippled bomber on the airbase's runway just after dark. Of the 47 planes of Kane's 98th and 44th Bomb Groups that launched to Ploesti, only 27 B-24s returned from the mission. Seventeen of the 98th's and 44th's planes were shot down over enemy territory. One plane, John Young's B-24D, Kickapoo, crashed on takeoff at Benghazi, killing most of it's replacement crew. The 98th Bomb Group suffered 46 percent casualties on the Ploesti mission. A total of four hundred and forty four American airmen on the mission were killed in action, with two hundred and twenty more airmen captured or missing. Ploesti was John Young's 28th and last combat mission of the war. Truly, "Black Sunday" was an appropriate name for this terrible black day, given by historian, Michael Hill. For his part in the mission, Lt. Young was awarded the Silver Star Medal and another oak leaf cluster to his Distinguished Flying Cross. Lt Whalen received the Distinguished Service Cross for his excellent navigating on the mission, as was Lt. Robert Sternfels in his famous plane, The Sandman, who also landed safely behind Hail Columbia at Nicosia and gave both Col. Kane and Young a ride back to Benghazi in his plane. Col. John Kane, Lt. John Young, Capt. Harold Korger, Lt. Norman Whalen, Major Walter Stewart, and Lt. Robert Sternfels, all survived the mission and the war. After the mission, John Young returned home to America, was promoted to Captain, and served on a war bond tour across America, and as a flying officer, until he was honorably discharged from the Army Air Corps in 1946 with the rank of Major. - He died in 1983.

Service

People

  • Addison Baker

    Military | Lieutenant Colonel | Air Group Commander / Command Pilot | 93rd Bomb Group
    Col. Addison Baker was the Commanding Officer of the 93rd Bomb Group, 8th Air Force from May 17, 1943 to August, 1943. Baker's Bomb Group, the 93rd, was one of three bomb groups from the Eighth Air Force in Britain that were sent to Benghazi, Libya to...

  • Keith Compton

    Military | General | B-24 Command Pilot - Squadron Commander - Commanding Officer | 376th Bomb Group
    Keith Karl Compton (December 9, 1915 – June 15, 2004) was an American Air Force Lieutenant General who was Vice Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command. He flew as Command Pilot with Gen. Uzal Ent on Operation Tidal Wave over the Ploesti oil...

  • Uzal Ent

    Military | Major General | Commanding General
    Uzal Girard Ent was an American Army Air Forces officer who served as the commander of the Ninth and subsequently Second Air Force during World War II. Flew on the 1st Aug 43 Ploesti oil refinery raid. In October 1944, was seriously injured in the...

  • Leon Johnson

    Military | Brigadier General | Pilot; Commanding Officer | 44th Bomb Group The Flying Eightballs
    Superior leadership during the Ploesti raid 1 August 1943 in B-24 #41-23817 'Suzy Q. ' ...

  • John Kane

    Military | Colonel | B-24 Command Pilot - 98th Bomb Group Commander | 98th Bomb Group
    John Riley Kane (January 5, 1907 – May 29, 1996) was a colonel in the United States Army Air Corps and later the United States Air Force. He received the U.S. military's highest decoration, the Congressional Medal of Honor, in World War II, for his...

  • Harold Korger

    Military | Colonel | Bombardier | 98th Bomb Group
    Lt. Harold Korger was a bombardier in the 344th Bombardment Squadron, 98th Bomb Group, 9th AF on Capt. John Young's crew in a B-24 named 'Kickapoo'. He graduated from Bombardier School at Midland Field in 1942 and was commissioned a 2nd Lt. In February...

  • Robert Nespor

    Military | First Lieutenant | Pilot | 93rd Bomb Group
    Lt. Robert J. Nespor - A B24D bomber pilot in the 9th AF - 376th Bombing Group, assigned to fly Lt. John S. Young's regular airplane, "Kickapoo" as command pilot with a replacement crew, also from the 376th Bomb Group for Operation Tidal Wave, Aug 1,...

  • John Palm

    Military | First Lieutenant | Pilot | 376th Bomb Group
    B-24

  • John Riley

    Military | Second Lieutenant | Pilot B-24D
    Lt. John Riley lost his life, as one of the first casualties of "Operation Tidal Wave" on August 1st, 1943, one of the biggest, most important, and most daring air raids of WWII, coming in at tree top level to destroy the Germans' Romanian oil...

  • Robert Sternfels

    Military | Major | B-24 Command Bomber Pilot | 98th Bomb Group
    Lt. Robert Sternfels was a B-24D command bomber pilot in WWII who flew the famous B-24D bomber, 'The Sandman' on the mission Operation Tidal Wave to bomb the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania, August 1, 1943. After enlisting as an Air Force pilot in...

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Units served with

  • 344th Bomb Squadron

    344th Bomb Squadron


    Established as a B-24 Liberator heavy bomb squadron and trained by Third Air Force. Deployed to Egypt in June 1942 over South Atlantic Transport Route transiting from Morrison Field, Florida though the Caribbean to Brazil; performed trans-Atlantic...

  • 376th Bomb Group

    376th Bomb Group

    Group
    Constituted as 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 Oct 1942 and activated in Palestine on 31 Oct. Began combat immediately, using B-24 aircraft. Operated with Ninth AF from bases in the Middle East, Nov 1942-Sep 1943, and with Twelfth AF from Tunisia...

  • 44th Bomb Group The Flying Eightballs

    44th Bomb Group The Flying Eightballs

    Group
    The 44th Bombardment Group (Heavy) was activated 15-January-1942 at McDill Field, Florida and equipped with B-24Cs. The Group moved to Barksdale Field, Louisiana and acted as a training unit for the 90th 93rd and 98th Bomb Groups and flew anti...

  • 98th Bomb Group

    98th Bomb Group

    Group
    The 98th trained for bombardment missions with B-24 Liberators during the first half of 1942. ...

Aircraft

  • 42-40402 The Sandman

    B-24 Liberator
    Crew of "The Sandman" on the Ploesti raid: ...

  • 41-11825 'Hail Columbia' 'Grumpy' 'Little Chief Big Dog'

    B-24 Liberator
    This aircraft originally served in the 344th BS as 'HAIL COLUMBIA'. It was 344th CO Col. John R. Kane's personal aircraft until Kane became 98th BG CO and turned it over to Herman "Big-Dog" Lewis. Lewis changed the right side nose art to 'LITTLE-CHIEF...

  • 41-11768 Kickapoo

    B-24 Liberator
    B-24 liberator #41-11768, 'Kickapoo', of the 344th Bombing Squadron, 98th Bomb Group, 9th Air Force. This was Lt. John S. Young's second regular aircraft after he lost his first B-24 in theater, which was shot down earlier in 1943 in an air fight near...

  • 42-40657 'G I Ginnie'

    B-24 Liberator
    B-24 Liberator #42-40657 'G I Ginnie', 514th BS, 376th BG, 9th AF, flew on 1st Aug 43 Ploesti oil refinery raid piloted by Norman C Appold, returning safely to Libya. ...

Missions

  • Operation Tidal Wave

    1 August 1943
    Operation TIDAL WAVE. B24D Liberators attack the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania. The bombers flew low to avoid radar detection and dropped time delayed bombs. Out of the 177 B24Ds that took part in the raid 167 managed to attack their targets. 57...

Associated Place

Events

Event Location Date

Revisions

Date Contributor Update
21 February 2019 22:17:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Ploesti - Anatomy of A Disaster - Hoyt Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
21 February 2019 03:32:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 February 2019 21:30:33 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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19 February 2019 21:18:43 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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19 February 2019 07:09:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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17 February 2019 06:18:15 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 06:10:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:52:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S, Vandenberg, Jr. Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:30:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Historynet - Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr. Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:18:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
16 February 2019 04:21:40 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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16 February 2019 04:01:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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15 February 2019 10:17:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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15 February 2019 10:08:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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15 February 2019 09:30:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:45:53 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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11 February 2019 23:43:02 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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11 February 2019 23:36:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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11 February 2019 23:30:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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11 February 2019 23:27:01 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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11 February 2019 23:25:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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11 February 2019 22:46:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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04 February 2019 17:40:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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04 February 2019 17:34:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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04 February 2019 17:02:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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04 February 2019 16:58:57 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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02 February 2019 10:12:27 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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02 February 2019 10:06:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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02 February 2019 09:56:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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02 February 2019 09:25:03 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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28 January 2019 13:43:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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28 January 2019 13:20:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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28 January 2019 00:24:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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28 January 2019 00:10:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:56:24 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:39:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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27 January 2019 23:23:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Persdonal Archives

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27 January 2019 23:17:51 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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27 January 2019 23:13:26 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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27 January 2019 23:10:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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27 January 2019 23:08:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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27 January 2019 22:45:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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27 January 2019 22:42:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

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27 January 2019 05:41:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

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27 January 2019 01:24:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

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27 January 2019 01:21:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

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27 January 2019 01:19:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

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23 January 2019 05:48:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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23 January 2019 05:05:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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23 January 2019 04:45:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal papers

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25 December 2018 05:00:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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25 December 2018 04:50:51 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill personal archives

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25 December 2018 04:39:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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25 December 2018 04:15:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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20 December 2018 06:53:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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20 December 2018 06:28:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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20 December 2018 06:07:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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20 December 2018 05:33:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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19 December 2018 06:57:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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19 December 2018 06:47:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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19 December 2018 06:32:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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19 December 2018 06:05:29 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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19 December 2018 05:35:46 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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19 December 2018 01:54:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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14 December 2018 04:02:09 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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14 December 2018 03:57:50 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

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14 December 2018 03:45:55 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 03:18:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:53:43 Kickapoo Changes to person associations and unit associations
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal collections

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:38:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collection

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30 November 2018 03:07:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and personal collection

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30 November 2018 03:05:12 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collection

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30 November 2018 03:02:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collections

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28 November 2018 07:08:53 Kickapoo Changes to biography and person associations
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Black Subday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 06:56:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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28 November 2018 06:50:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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black sunday - Michael Hill

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28 November 2018 01:14:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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24 November 2018 04:17:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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24 November 2018 03:55:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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24 November 2018 02:42:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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13 November 2018 14:24:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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13 November 2018 14:19:02 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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13 November 2018 14:17:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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13 November 2018 14:13:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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13 November 2018 14:10:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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13 November 2018 13:59:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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13 November 2018 08:42:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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13 November 2018 08:33:40 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

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17 October 2018 05:33:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

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Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

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Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
15 October 2018 03:24:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
12 October 2018 04:29:26 Kickapoo Changes to media associations
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
12 October 2018 03:32:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
11 October 2018 01:03:38 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
11 October 2018 00:44:54 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
04 October 2018 03:20:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
04 October 2018 03:09:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
25 September 2018 16:06:15 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 20:20:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 20:10:46 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 19:37:41 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 18:12:35 Kickapoo Changes to role
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 18:08:59 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 17:57:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:27:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:21:25 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:11:23 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 September 2018 10:53:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 19:49:34 Kickapoo Changes to nickname and biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 19:44:03 Kickapoo Changes to nickname, biography and awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 18:37:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 09:14:55 Kickapoo Changes to media associations
Sources

Black Sunday-Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 08:54:26 Kickapoo Changes to service number, biography, awards and place associations
Sources

Black Sunday- Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 August 2018 00:15:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 August 2018 00:09:20 Kickapoo Changes to nickname, role, unit associations and aircraft associations
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 August 2018 18:20:58 Kickapoo Created entry with surname, middlename, firstname, nickname, nationality, highest rank, role, person associations, unit associations, place associations, aircraft associations and mission associations
Sources

Black Sunday : Ploesti Michael Hill

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