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John Simmons Young

Military

Lieutenant John S. Young from Dallas Texas was a WWII B-24D Liberator bomber pilot with the 9th Air Force, the "Force For Freedom", the 98th Bomb Group the, "Pyramiders", and the 344th Bombing Squadron, based at Cairo, Egypt, Tobruk, and Benghazi, Libya, in early dark days of WWII in 1942-3. He flew on the deadly mission, Operation Tidal Wave, to destroy Hitler's oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania in 1943. He was assigned to fly with Group Commander Col. John R. (Killer) Kane in the 98th Bombing Group's lead aircraft, 'Hail Columbia'. Col. Kane, Lt. Young, and Col. Leon Johnson's 44th Bomb Group's planes, and Jack Wood's 389th Bomb Group's planes following them, successfully attacked and bombed their targets at Ploesti, including the Astra Romano oil refinery, code named, White IV, Target Red at Campina, and also the Columbia Aquila refinery.

Before the Ploesti mission, John Young's last personal plane had been the B-24D SN #41-11768, the 'Kickapoo', which he named after the potent liquor, "Kickapoo Joy Juice" from Al Capp's "Li'l Abner" cartoon. From the time the 98th Bomb Group arrived in North Africa, in July, 1942, to August, 1943, it supported the British Eighth Army in it's westward advance to defeat and drive the German army out of North Africa, from Egypt into Libya and Tunisia. The Americans bombed German land targets in the North African desert, shipping in the Mediterranean Sea, harbor installations, enemy ports, and port facilities in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, Crete, and Greece, to cut enemy supply lines to Africa, and to prepare for the Allied invasion of Italy. The 98th's B-24Ds flew out in small groups, unescorted, and were often attacked by Italian and German fighters. Casualties were heavy. On one of his missions, Young bombed, and damaged or sank a German submarine he caught on the water's surface. Another time, while flying over an Italian harbor he felt his bombardier, who hated the Italians, toggle two bombs into an Italian hospital ship with red crosses on it, as he flew over it. Lt. Young knew that ship was off limits and had been warned not to bomb it. He fully expected to be court martialed when he returned to Benghazi. However, several days later, when he was asked about the bombing and told intelligence what happened, they told him they had information that the ship had been running arms and supplies to the Germans. So, instead of being reprimanded, he was commended for the sinking ! On April 3, 1943, on a bombing mission over Crete, Lt. Young was forced to leave his formation of B-24s, when he couldn't keep up with them after one of his engines failed completely and two others began operating intermittently, Shortly after leaving the formation, he was attacked by eight enemy ME-109 fighters. Caught alone now, with his engines failing, Young and his crew engaged and fought the German pilots in a running air battle, eight against one, in a defensive spiraling corkscrew descent down to the Mediterranean water's surface, trying to rob the fighters of their vertical plane of attack. When the German fighters made gunnery runs on his B-24, Young had his tail and waist gunners call the breaks (turns) for him over the intercom to "Break left, Big John !" or "Break right, Johnny !" so he could time and execute steep evasive turns into the approaching fighters until they were down to just above the water's surface so his gunners could get passing shots at the enemy fighters as they overshot, and flew past the tighter turning American B-24 bomber. These tactics worked well enough for Young's gunners to shoot down three of the attacking fighters and damaged two others before the remaining German pilots decided they had had enough and disengaged. Knowing his failing B-24 would never make it back to land, much less, Benghazi, North Africa, Young turned back toward the closest land at the island of Crete and ditched his smoking, shot up B-24 in the shallow water just off the beach. He and his crew were able to escape their plane, and they all swam to shore where they were captured by Turkish soldiers and later released back to the British and returned to Benghazi. For this action John Young and his crew were all awarded Distinguished Flying Cross medals.

By the time the huge mission, Operation Tidal Wave, was announced in early 1943, Lt. Young and his aircrew had fought through and survived 27 combat missions and had over 300 combat hours logged, more missions than the Army Air Force's 25 mission total requirement to earn a trip home. But the Ploesti mission was viewed as so critical that Young and his crew were held over by Col. John Kane, along with many other pilots and crewmen, who were badly needed to fly the mission. Because of a number of last minute staffing changes just before the mission, Col. Kane replaced the first copilot assigned to him for the mission, Mission Commander General Uzal Ent, who was known as a dangerously incompetent pilot, with the more capable and respected pilot, First Lieutenant John Young, to fly as his copilot in Kane's chosen B-24, 'Hail Columbia', for the mission and which was now designated the 98th Bombing Group's lead B-24. Kane also reassigned First Lt. Norman Whalen, his navigator, Second Lt. Harry Korger, his bombardier, and the rest of 'Kickapoo''s crew to fly with him on the mission, including Staff Sergeant Neville C. Benson, waist gunner, First Lieutenant Raymond B. Hubbard, radioman, Sergeant Joseph W. LaBranche, gunner, Technical Sergeant Frederick A. Leard, waist Gunner, Sergeant William Leo, gunner, Staff Sergeant Harvey L. Treace, gunner, Technical Sergeant, Fred Weckessler, flight engineer/top turret gunner, all of whom were seasoned and proven to be exceptional airmen. Johnny Young often said after the war that HE was the designated command pilot on the Ploesti mission by Col. Kane, and Kane was his copilot. Apparently, Col. Kane had designated Lt. Young to start the mission in the left seat as 'Hail Columbia''s pilot in command for the mission's takeoff and most of the long flight to Ploesti. Then, Kane switched seats with his copilot, sometime before they approached Ploesti and the Romanian refineries, so he could take command of 'Hail Columbia', and the four extra fixed forward firing .50 cal machine guns installed in 'Hail Columbia's nose, in order to be fresh for commanding and leading the three bombing groups following him, on the final run into and over the target.

As planning and training for the Ploesti mission progressed, and the day of the mission approached, morale was fading. The mood of the 98th and the other bombing groups was becoming more and more grim. The men had gradually learned from intelligence, just how heavy and deadly the ground defenses around Ploesti really were, and that Ploesti was the most heavily defended enemy city in Eastern Europe, next to Berlin. They knew what the defensive horrors at Ploesti were with high flak towers, thousands of hidden flak guns, and barrage balloons, with cables and explosive charges. They knew there were 250 first class German and Romanian fighter pilots and planes assigned and waiting to defend the city. The men also knew that their B-24 bombers were well known for being fire traps. They knew they would be flying and bombing at low level, down as low as 20 to 250 feet, without any fighter support. They knew that getting hit by flak at low level would rule out almost any hope for escaping from their airplanes. The men were war weary and their nerves were shot after months of constant combat. For over a year, they had been bombing the Italians and Germans, losing airplanes and men. Now, many of them, instead of going home after completing their 25 mission requirement, were faced with flying against this very dangerous target on what now was becoming viewed as a suicide mission! The men were drinking heavily and fighting at night with the Australian and British army personnel over in the Benghazi Hotel bar, inflicting and suffering serious injuries. Complaints began going up to the staff level. Drunken American pilots had been injured racing their German motorcycles around the Benghazi airfields at night. One American pilot nearly killed himself when he ground looped and crashed a Ju-87 Stuka dive bomber, which had been left behind on the airfield by the Germans and rebuilt into flying condition by the American mechanics. These and other events convinced the Ploesti mission planners and commanders that something had to be done. So, one evening, just before the mission, Gen. Brereton called the men from all the bombing groups into one of the very large aircraft maintenance tents and gave them a final briefing with a speech they would not forget. After the briefing he said, " I have also called you in tonight because we have a serious problem that can affect the success of the coming mission, which might be the most important mission of this war. You all know now how tough this mission is going to be. There is no denying it. You are worried you won't make it through the mission to go home and see your families and loved ones." Then, he said, "Stop worrying about surviving this mission! And you can stop thinking about going home because you are not going home! - You are not going home because you are not going to survive this mission! Get this straight ! You're already dead men. You signed your lives away three years ago when you signed up to fight this war! So get it straight, right now, tonight, and put all those hopes and all those dreams behind you! If you can't accept what I just said, if you can't make peace with what we have to do tomorrow and what the consequences will be for us, then, you will not be able do your job, and and you will not be able to help us bomb the refineries at Ploesti, which is critical to winning this war! You have some time tonight to think about what I just said. If you need to, write your families and tell them whatever you need to say to them before we fly to Ploesti. But, if any of you can't accept what I just told you, come and see me in my office tonight, and we will relieve you of your duties, and we will find someone who can !" - But the men knew there were few, if any, replacements. And many men feared being left behind almost as much as they feared going on the mission. Finally, Brereton closed and said, "If all of you do your jobs and bomb your targets tomorrow, it will be worth it, even if we lose every airplane !" Then, the men were dismissed and filed out quietly.

Col. John Kane wrote about that night after Brereton's speech in his autobiography about the war and the mission. He wrote how quiet and shocked the men were as they left the maintenance tent, and, afterwards, how dark the mood was over the entire airbase that night. No one slept very well, if at all. Here and there, men in their tents could be heard crying. Col. Kane, who had been in on the intelligence, planning, and the training for the mission from the beginning, went to his regular lonely thinking place and sat out under the stars for a long time that night. He was among those convinced he was not going to survive the mission. So were, pretty much, the rest of 'Kickapoo''s old crew, and now 'Hail Columbia''s, officers, including Lt. John Young, Lt. Korger, and Lt. Norman Whalen, all of whom wrote as much to their families that night. Kane wrote farewell letters to his wife and to his parents, as Brereton had suggested. John Young was resigned to whatever would come. He knew he had performed well on his previous missions, and he was determined to do so on this one, also. He wrote a letter home and told his parents that, "Even if I don't come home after this mission...", he believed his "sacrifice would be worth it." But, he had no one else to say farewell to. Weeks earlier, his parents had notified him that his high school sweetheart had married the son of a wealthy oilman back in Texas that she had met in college. That night was a long and black one for the men of the 98th and the men of all of the other groups assigned to fly to Ploesti, and a very dark one for the 26 year old First Lieutenant Johnny Young. For so long, ever since he had come to North Africa, he had hoped and dreamed of surviving the war to go home and marry his best girl. Now, he no longer had any reason to hope for, or dream about, any of those things any more, like Gen. Brereton had said.

The morning of the mission, during the mass take off in the dark for Ploesti, John Young's old airplane, 'Kickapoo', like all the planes, was overloaded with extra guns, ammo, gas, and bombs, and had it's #4 engine fail at the worst possible time, just after takeoff, a victim of the desert sand. Then, it caught on fire, with two more engines failing, in turn, shortly thereafter, causing it's replacement pilot from the 376th Bomb Group, Lt. Robert Nespor, to crash 'Kickapoo' in flames, killing, himself, his copilot, Lt. John Riley, and all but two of the rest of the crew, as they fought to save and bring their crippled, but valuable, ship back in for landing on the airbase's runway. They were the very first casualties of the Ploesti mission before it had even started. But they would not be the last. By the end of the day 446 more American airmen would be dead. A hundred, or so, more, would be injured, captured, or missing.

As Col. Kane and Lt. Young in 'Hail Columbia', were closing in on Ploesti, leading the 98th and the following 44th Bomb Group, the "Eight Balls", they had lost Jack Wood and the 389th "Sky Scorpions" who had gotten ahead of them before they all approached Ploesti. As they approached their first initial point coming into Ploesti, the situation ahead looked even worse than they could have imagined it could be. Even flying very low, between 20 and 50 feet off the ground on the run into the refinery areas, as they began taking ground fire and began shooting at Ploesti's outlying ground defenses, Kane and Young could clearly see ahead and off to their right, what looked like a dark thunderstorm over Ploesti, but, in fact, their principal assigned target, the Astra Romano Refinery, code named, White IV, was already on fire and being bombed by the 93rd Bomb Group, who had come in from the south and were bombing ahead of them. What looked like thunder clouds over Ploesti from further away, was Ploesti, already fiercely burning and obscured by thick black smoke from huge oil fires and explosions caused by the 93rd's bombs. As they got closer, looking out of the front and right side of his windscreen, John Kane said, "Good God, look at that !" Now, Col. Kane, Lt. John Young, Col. Leon Johnson, the leader of the 44th Bombing Group, and all of the pilots following them, could see what they were facing, not only, the full effects of the fully alerted German anti-aircraft defenses, already shooting at the attacking 93rd Bomb Group's B-24s, but also, huge fires, explosions and secondary explosions caused by the bombs dropped twenty minutes earlier by the 93rd's Col. Addison Baker, Major Ramsey Potts, and Lt. John Palm, with Col. Walter Stewart, Lt. Robert Sternfels, and others from the 376th Bombing Groups following behind them, bombing White IV, and the area around it, blocks of which were now covered with black boiling smoke and flames shooting hundreds of feet into the air, and huge explosions from the 93rd's delayed action 500 and 1000 pound bombs, exploding ahead of the 98th, and even underneath them, as they began their run into their heavily compromised target at twenty feet and 190 miles per hour.

South of them and heading straight for them, Maj. Walter Stewart had just taken over leading the 93rd Bomb Group after Col. Addison Baker and his copilot, Major John Jerstad in their B-24, 'Hell's Wench', were shot down ahead of him and killed just minutes before, over the Columbia Aquila refinery, as they bombed Kane's target, White IV, ahead of Kane's 98th Bomb Group, and out of synchronization with the attack plan. After bombing White IV, Major Stewart, in his B-24D, 'Utah Man', and the rest of the 93rd's planes following him, converged with, and flew right through the 98th's approaching formation in the chaos created by a catastrophically wrong turn away from Ploesti that had been ordered by Mission Commander, Gen. Uzal Ent and executed by his pilot, Col. Keith Compton, in 'Teggie Ann' leading the 376th Bomb Group's formation, also south of Ploesti.

Still, Col. Kane in 'Hail Columbia', Col. Leon Johnson, in his plane, 'Suzie Q', and the rest of the 98th "Pyramiders", the 44th Bomb Groups, without discussion or hesitation, continued their attack plan into Ploesti and into White IV's wall of smoke and the burning hell of the flames, explosions, and flak guns ! They all were determined to accomplish their mission, or "die trying", as Col. Kane had promised his crew the day before! And Col. Addison Baker, and his copilot, Major John Jerstad, and their crew did "die trying" when their bomber, 'Hell's Wench', was hit multiple times by deadly flak rounds, caught on fire, and crashed in flames at the Columbia Aquila refinery, killing everyone on board.

All of this madness was caused, in part, because south of Ploesti, Mission Commander Gen. Ent had deliberately failed to continue flying north toward Ploesti at his second initial point outside the city ! Instead of staying on course north to bomb his assigned target, he had ordered his pilot, Col. Keith Compton in their B-24, named both, 'Teggie Ann' on one side and on the other side, 'The Blue Streak', to turn east towards Bucharest and refused to answer the desperate radio calls from Major Ramsey Potts and Maj. Walter Stewart in 'Utah Man' just behind him in the 93rd Bomb Group, and the calls on his intercom from his own navigator, Capt. Harold Wicklund, warning Compton and Ent that they had made a disastrously wrong turn away from Ploesti! Col. Baker, behind them, had also seen the wrong turn and immediately decided to attack the refineries on his own, just like he had said he would, and led the 93rd Bomb Group north, away from the rest of the 376th, toward Ploesti ! Major Stewart and Ramsey Potts were also both in shock and disbelief at what they had just seen Ent and Compton do, and also disobeyed their attack plan orders to stay with Ent and the rest of their 376th Bomb Group ! They also turned and followed Col. Baker, all of them determined to attack Ploesti on their own initiative, in spite of Compton's inexplicable, wrong turn away from their target.

But Col. Compton with General Ent in 'Teggie Ann' / 'The Blue Streak', twenty minutes after having turned east toward Bucharest, and still leading the 376th planes that were still following them, were circling around Ploesti south and east of the city, instead of flying their attack plan. They could see off to their left, thousands of the green German flak tracer rounds streaming into the sky. They could see the smoke, explosions, and the fires of the exploding bombs dropped by the 93rd Bomb Group. And they could see the 93rd's planes, and also the 98th, and the 44th bombing groups' planes being shot out of the sky by the defending flak guns. And they could see American airplanes burning, exploding, and crashing into the ground over and south of Ploesti's refinery area.

Major Norman Appold in 'G.I. Ginnie', his wingman, Lt. John Palm, piloting the 'Brewery Wagon', and two other ships in the 376th Bomb Group's formation, including Col. Pete Hughes, had also seen the mistaken turn that Compton and Ent had made and had quickly decided that they, too, would attack Ploesti on their own. So they also disobeyed their orders to stay with their assigned formation and also left the main 376th Bomb Group, and turned their planes left and back to the north, with their four plane section, looking for targets of opportunity to bomb. On their run in they decided on Target White II, the Concordia Vega Refinery, Col. Addison Baker's assigned target. After bombing White II, Major Appold's surviving planes, along with Major Potts and the 93rd's planes, now fleeing the area, also, passed through Killer Kane’s 98th and 44th Bomb Groups still heading for White IV. The confusion resulted in ongoing moments of terror and violent maneuvering as three layers of formations of B-24 bombers from the 98th, the 44th, the 93rd, and Major Appold's planes from the 376th Bomb Group, all tried to avoid midair collisions with each other's planes as the converging planes all flew through Col. Kane's formation from two different directions in the mad confusion of the broken mission that Operation Tidal Wave had become - in part, because of Keith Compton's and Gen. Ent's actions.

Lt. John Palm had drawn a jinxed plane for the mission, the 'Brewery Wagon', and was one of the rogue pilots from the 376th Bomb Group, who elected to turn away from Bucharest toward Ploesti, and was also heading for a target of opportunity at treetop level and 190 miles per hour. But he never made it that far. He was hit multiple times by the deadly flak guns and had to release his bombs just to keep his staggering ship in the air, when he suffered a direct 88mm explosive flak hit on 'Brewery Wagon''s nose, instantly killing his navigator and his bombardier, destroying flight control wires, and taking out two engines. Now, with his plane failing, on fire, and himself seriously wounded, with his right leg nearly blown off, and being attacked by ME-109s, Lt. Palm crash landed his failing B-24 into an open field, to be captured alive, along with only three other surviving crew members. When Pete Hughes' B-24 was set on fire by flak, he pulled his plane up to try to save as many of his crewmen as possible, with three of them parachuting to safety. Hughes ship crashed in flames killing him and all those left on board. Jack Wood leading the 398th "Sky Scorpions" from England had gotten ahead of Kane on the run into Ploesti, but found and bombed his target, "Target Red", the Campina refinery losing four of his group, shot down over their target.

Col. Kane and Lt. John Young, leading the 98th and the 44th Bomb Groups, and their followers, pulled their planes up to 250 feet to clear the smoke stacks of the Astra Romano's refineries ahead and began weaving back and forth in groups to fly around and between the huge fires, explosions, and obstacles in their way, as they pressed home their attack, looking for way points to their target, the Astro Romano refinery complex, strafing the flak guns on the ground ahead of them with the four extra fixed .50 cal. machine guns, two on each side of 'Hail Columbia''s nose, with their nose gunners Capt. Korger and Lt. Whalen, and the top turret gunner also raking the enemy's flak guns forward from the top turret modified to fire forward, and out of the front, sides, and back of their B-24. All this time, both Kane and Young were fighting and struggling to keep their airplane flying. Kane wrote after the mission that it took all of his and Young's combined arm strength to manhandle 'Hail Columbia' turning hard between and around the obstacles ahead of them, and to control the pitching, bucking, rolling, shaking, and vibrating monster that 'Hail Columbia' had become over their target now at low altitude, in and out of the huge updrafts from the fires and wake turbulences from the other bombers flying through White IV's airspace with flames, smoke, and explosions all around and under them, while fighting to keep their bomber in the air and away from the ground, and to keep from hitting the many fixed and moving obstructions in their way, including the other American B-24 bombers flying through their formation from two different directions. At the same time, Kane and Young could see their friends being shot down around them, as they, too, were being hit hard now by the deadly flak rounds, with other planes catching on fire simply by flying through the 300 foot high flames, hitting the barrage balloon cables, and being blown up from both the ground flak rounds and the explosions from the 93rd's delayed action bombs now exploding under them, with many planes crashing into the oil tanks and the refinery buildings on the ground. As the 93rd's delayed action bombs began exploding in front of and beneath 'Hail Columbia', Norm Whalen, watching all of this out of his forward nose position, wrote later, "I thought I was going to die right then and there. I thought we all were. I never thought we could make it out of there alive ! But we flew right on in." Kane flew 'Hail Columbia' right through a huge column of boiling flames, which reached up even higher than his plane's 200 feet altitude and burned his left arm resting on the bomber's left side sliding window sill. Yet, somehow, the flames did not ignite the gasoline leaking from 'Hail Columbia''s wings and from the gasoline fumes inside it's fuselage. Also, by some miracle, John Kane, Johnny Young, and Harry Korger were able to find, line up on, and drop their bombs on the Astra Romano refinery area. But 'Hail Columbia', like all the rest of the 44th's and 98th's planes, was also being hit hard by the German flak guns shooting at them from almost point blank range. A flak hit destroyed their #4 engine. As Johnny Young feathered the #4 engine's propeller, their #3 engine's propeller was also hit with a small round and began vibrating. The #2 engine on the left side was hit and damaged, but still running. With things going south in a hurry for 'Hail Columbia', one engine out, and two more damaged coming out of White IV and heading into the heavy flak area south of White IV, somehow, with the crew still mostly uninjured, the Texans of 'Hail Columbia' were alive and still flying! As they began to leave the refinery area, they had been flying through the destruction over the greater Ploesti area for almost half an hour, probably, the longest half hour of their lives.

In marked contrast, after having been in the area for over 20 minutes, Col. Compton, Gen. Ent, and the main force of the 376th, who stayed with them, finally, dropped their bombs harmlessly over the hills north of Ploesti and headed west for home, relatively undamaged and intact.

But not so intact were the men in 'Hail Columbia' and the planes of the rest of the 98th, the 44th, the 389th Bombing Groups, and the rogue planes from the 93rd and the 376th Bombing Group led by Major Norman Appold, Major Ramsey Potts, and Lt. John Palm, that had been thoroughly decimated by the German defenses over their targets. As these remnant survivors were still trying to escape the area, they were attacked by the higher flying German and Romanian fighters, who dove down on them, and shot down a few more of the American bombers. Kane and John Young again had to execute steep defensive turns, staying low in order to throw off the fighter planes' aim, and avoided being hit by any of them. Several survivor planes, including Lt. Robert Sternfels in 'The Sandman', Col. Walter Stewart in 'Utah Man', and Lt. Gib Hadley in 'Hadley's Harem' joined up with 'Hail Columbia' and it's excellent lead navigator, Lt. Norman "The Baron" Whalen, who navigated the group of crippled survivors all the way out of Ploesti, south and west, on over the Pindus mountains to the Mediterranean Sea, then, south, all the way to the British air base at Nicosia, on the Greek island of Cyprus, where the few planes, still flying, landed, minus Gib Hadley, who lost the fight with his damaged airplane and crashed into the Aegean Sea, killing him and most of his crew. The rest of those, who, with Kane and Young, had made it to Cyprus, landed. 'Hail Columbia''s two exhausted pilots crash landed their crippled bomber on the Nicosia airbase's runway long after dark.

Of the 177 planes that took off from Benghazi, only 88 aircraft made it back to Benghazi, 55 of those with damage so severe they would never fly again. Of the 47 planes of Kane's 98th and 44th Bomb Groups that launched to Ploesti, only 27 B-24s returned from the mission. Seventeen of Kane's 98th's and the 44th Bomb Group's planes were shot down over enemy territory. Two went down at sea with the loss of their crews. Seven turned back from the mission. One plane, Johnny Young's B-24D, 'Kickapoo', crashed in flames on takeoff at Benghazi, killing most of it's replacement crew. And others, like Lt. Gib Hadley, crashed on the long flight home, killing him and most of his crew. The 98th and the 44th Bomb Groups suffered 46 percent casualties on the Ploesti mission. A total of 446 American airmen on the mission were killed in action, with 220 more airmen, injured, captured, or missing. Fifty-four aircraft and 532 total crewmen were killed, injured, or lost from all causes.

For John Young, Ploesti was his 28th and last combat mission of the war. But, for the men who died, and even for the men who survived the mission, that black day was named "Black Sunday" a very appropriate name given to that terrible day, August, 1, 1943, by historian Michael Hill, a day that saw so many American flyer's killed, wounded, and lost, having suffered the most casualties ever, on a single U.S. Army Air Force bombing mission.

For his part in leading his three groups successfully to bomb their targets on the mission, Col. John Kane received one of 5 Medals Of Honor awarded for the mission, 3 of them to men, like Col. Addison Baker and Major John Jerstad, who paid for them with their lives. For his part in the mission, Lt. John Young received one of 41 Silver Star Medals awarded for the mission and another oak leaf cluster to his Distinguished Flying Cross, with 1,320 total DFC Medals awarded, one to every single man who flew on the mission and survived, and also to those who flew and paid for their medals with their lives, as did 27 year old Lt. Robert Nespor, the young pilot who died trying to save the 'Kickapoo' in Johnny Young's place. Lt. Norman Whalen received one of 50 Distinguished Service Crosses awarded for the mission, for his bravery and his excellent lead navigating on the mission, as did Col. Walter Stewart for his leadership after his group leader, Col. Baker was shot down and killed, and one also awarded to Lt. Robert Sternfels in 'The Sandman, both of whom also landed safely just ahead of and behind 'Hail Columbia' at Nicosia, Cyprus, and who gave both Col. Kane and Lt. Young rides back to Benghazi after the mission.

Col. John Kane, Lt. John Young, Lt. Harold Korger, Lt. Norman Whalen, Col. Leon Johnson, Major Walter Stewart, Lt. Robert Sternfels, Col. Leon Johnson, Maj. Ramsey Potts, and Lt. John Palm, pilot of 'The Brewery Wagon' all survived the Ploesti mission and the war. After the mission, John Young returned home to America, was promoted to Captain, and served on a war bond tour across America. He continued to serve as a flying officer until he was honorably discharged from the Army Air Corps in 1946 with the rank of Major. He became a vice president of the First National Bank in Dallas for many years, and the president of Herrin Trucking Company. John Young died in 1983.

Service

People

  • Addison Baker

    Military | Lieutenant Colonel | Air Group Commander / Command Pilot | 376th Bomb Group
    Col. Addison Baker was the Commanding Officer of the 93rd Bomb Group, 8th Air Force from May 17, 1943 to August, 1943. Baker's Bomb Group, the 93rd, was one of three bomb groups from the Eighth Air Force in Britain that were sent to Benghazi, Libya to...

  • Lewis Brereton

    Military | Lieutenant General | Commanding General
    Lewis Hyde Brereton (June 21, 1890 – July 20, 1967) was a military aviation pioneer and lieutenant general in the United States Air Force. A 1911 graduate of the United States Naval Academy, he began his military career as a United States Army officer...

  • Keith Compton

    Military | General | B-24 Command Pilot - Squadron Commander - Commanding Officer | 376th Bomb Group
    Keith Karl Compton (December 9, 1915 – June 15, 2004) was an American Air Force Lieutenant General who was Vice Commander in Chief, Strategic Air Command. He flew as Command Pilot with Gen. Uzal Ent on Operation Tidal Wave over the Ploesti oil...

  • Uzal Ent

    Military | Major General | Commanding General | 376th Bomb Group
    Uzal Girard Ent was an American Army Air Forces officer who served as the commander of the 9th Air Force and subsequently the 2nd Air Force during World War II. He flew as mission commander on the Aug 1, 1943, Ploesti oil refinery raid, Operation Tidal...

  • Gilbert Hadley

    Military | First Lieutenant | B-24D Pilot | 98th Bomb Group
    First Lieutenant Gilbert B. Hadley was a B-24 pilot and was killed participating in Operation Tidal Wave, the mission to knock out the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania. Hadley was assigned to the 9th Air force, the 98th Bombing Group known as 'The...

  • John Jerstad

    Military | Major | Pilot | 376th Bomb Group
    Killed in Action (KIA) during Ploesti raid 1 August 1943 Held formation and bombed target after B-24 #42-240994 'Hell's Wench' was badly damaged. ...

  • Leon Johnson

    Military | Brigadier General | Pilot; Commanding Officer | 44th Bomb Group The Flying Eightballs
    Superior leadership during the Ploesti raid 1 August 1943 in B-24 #41-23817 'Suzy Q. ' ...

  • John Kane

    Military | Colonel | B-24 Command Pilot - 98th Bomb Group Commander | 98th Bomb Group
    John Riley Kane (January 5, 1907 – May 29, 1996) was a colonel in the United States Army Air Corps and later the United States Air Force. He received the U.S. military's highest decoration, the Congressional Medal of Honor, in World War II, for his...

  • Harold Korger

    Military | Colonel | Bombardier Navigator | 98th Bomb Group
    Lt. Harold Korger was a bombardier in the 344th Bombardment Squadron, 98th Bomb Group, 9th Air Force. He flew on the famous mission, Operation Tidal Wave, Aug 1, 1943, to knock out the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania. ...

  • Robert Nespor

    Military | First Lieutenant | Pilot | 93rd Bomb Group
    Lt. Robert J. Nespor - A B24D bomber pilot in the 330th Bomb Squadron, the 93rd Bombing Group, and the 376th Bombing Group, and the 9th Air Force. For Operation Tidal Wave, Aug 1, 1943, Lt. Nespor was assigned to fly Lt. John S. Young's regular...

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Units served with

  • 344th Bomb Squadron

    344th Bomb Squadron


    Established as a B-24 Liberator heavy bomb squadron and trained by Third Air Force. Deployed to Egypt in June 1942 over South Atlantic Transport Route transiting from Morrison Field, Florida though the Caribbean to Brazil; performed trans-Atlantic...

  • 376th Bomb Group

    376th Bomb Group

    Group
    Constituted as 376th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 19 Oct 1942 and activated in Palestine on 31 Oct. Began combat immediately, using B-24 aircraft. Operated with Ninth AF from bases in the Middle East, Nov 1942-Sep 1943, and with Twelfth AF from Tunisia...

  • 389th Bomb Group

    389th Bomb Group

    Group
    The 389th Bomb Group, known in more familiar terms as "the Sky Scorpions", flew strategic bombing missions in B-24 Liberators from Hethel, England. They also sent detachments to join bases in North Africa at Benghazi No. 10, Libya, between 3 July 1943...

  • 44th Bomb Group The Flying Eightballs

    44th Bomb Group The Flying Eightballs

    Group
    The 44th Bombardment Group (Heavy) was activated 15-January-1942 at McDill Field, Florida and equipped with B-24Cs. The Group moved to Barksdale Field, Louisiana and acted as a training unit for the 90th 93rd and 98th Bomb Groups and flew anti...

  • 98th Bomb Group

    98th Bomb Group

    Group
    The 98th trained for bombardment missions with B-24 Liberators during the first half of 1942. ...

Aircraft

  • 41-11613 'Florine Ju Ju' 'Teggie Ann' 'Blue Streak'

    B-24 Liberator
    B-24D 41-11613 "The Blue Streak" of 514th BS, 376th BG, 9th AF. Originally named "Florine Ju Ju" then 'Teggie Ann'. She was a member of the HALPRO group that eventually became the 376th Bomb Group. The aircraft was a veteran of the first high level...

  • 41-23817 'Suzy Q'

    B-24 Liberator
    SUZY-Q, flown by Col. Leon Johnson, led the 44th Bomb Group on the Aug 1, 1943 Ploesti raid and was the most famous ship of the 67th Squadron. The plane was lost on Aug 16, 1943 on a mission to the north airfield at Foggia, Italy. The plane...

  • 42-40402 The Sandman

    B-24 Liberator
    Crew of "The Sandman" on the Ploesti raid: ...

  • 41-24294 'Brewery Wagon'

    B-24 Liberator
    Shot down by a Me-109 over Ploesti. Two of the crew KIA, eight became POW's. MACR 154 ...

  • 41-24311 'Hadley's Harem'

    B-24 Liberator
    Failed To Return - Ploesti oil refinery raid. Pilot Gilbert B Hadley. MACR 167 ...

  • 41-11825 'Hail Columbia' 'Grumpy' 'Little Chief Big Dog'

    B-24 Liberator
    This aircraft originally served in the 9th Air Force, the 98th Bomb Group, and the 344th Bomb Squadron as 'HAIL COLUMBIA'. It was 344th's CO Col. John R. Kane's personal aircraft until Kane became the 98th Bomb Group CO and turned it over to Herman ...

  • 41-11768 Kickapoo

    B-24 Liberator
    B-24D Liberator #41-11768, 'Kickapoo', of the 344th Bombing Squadron, 98th Bomb Group, 9th Air Force. This airplane was Lt. John S. Young's second regular aircraft after he lost his first B-24 in the Mediterranean theater, which was shot down earlier...

  • 42-40657 'G I Ginnie'

    B-24 Liberator
    B-24 Liberator #42-40657 'G I Ginnie', 514th BS, 376th BG, 9th AF, flew on 1st Aug 43 Ploesti oil refinery raid piloted by Norman C Appold, returning safely to Libya. ...

Missions

  • Operation Tidal Wave

    1 August 1943
    Operation TIDAL WAVE. B24D Liberators attack the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania. The bombers flew low to avoid radar detection and dropped time delayed bombs. Out of the 177 B24Ds that took part in the raid 167 managed to attack their targets. 57...

Associated Place

Events

Event Location Date

Revisions

Date Contributor Update
08 July 2019 07:36:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
08 July 2019 07:26:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

natomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
08 July 2019 07:03:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
08 July 2019 06:48:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
07 July 2019 05:28:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
07 July 2019 05:16:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
06 July 2019 11:46:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
06 July 2019 11:19:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
06 July 2019 10:36:22 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
06 July 2019 08:31:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
03 July 2019 09:02:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
03 July 2019 08:49:57 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Shulz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
03 July 2019 08:37:11 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Shulz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
03 July 2019 08:08:29 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Shulz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
03 July 2019 07:45:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Shulz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
01 July 2019 06:59:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
01 July 2019 06:55:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography and person associations
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
01 July 2019 06:50:22 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 June 2019 01:27:56 Kickapoo Changes to person associations and unit associations
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 June 2019 01:19:56 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
11 June 2019 06:01:15 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
11 June 2019 05:08:56 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
10 June 2019 22:38:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.comg

Date Contributor Update
10 June 2019 22:03:40 Kickapoo Changes to aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
09 June 2019 01:42:34 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
09 June 2019 01:36:24 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
09 June 2019 01:01:48 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
09 June 2019 00:14:54 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
09 June 2019 00:02:30 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
08 June 2019 23:42:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
08 June 2019 22:38:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Into The Fire - Duane Schultz Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives - John S. Young TogetherWeServed.com Findagrave.com

Date Contributor Update
08 June 2019 22:35:57 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Into The Fire - Duane Schultz Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives - John S. Young TogetherWeServed.com Findagrave.com

Date Contributor Update
27 May 2019 10:25:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography and person associations
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The Fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young Findagrave.com Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg

Date Contributor Update
27 May 2019 09:46:51 Kickapoo Changes to biography and awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
29 April 2019 21:53:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Brandednberg --- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
29 April 2019 20:44:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
29 April 2019 20:11:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster ---- Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
26 April 2019 22:52:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster ---- Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
26 April 2019 19:13:01 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Brandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
22 April 2019 22:30:41 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Brandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young - Personal Archives ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
22 April 2019 20:25:01 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
22 April 2019 18:54:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 April 2019 22:39:22 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 April 2019 22:26:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
11 April 2019 04:21:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
11 April 2019 04:08:43 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
10 April 2019 11:07:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
10 April 2019 10:05:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Brandenberg - Black Sunday - Michael Hill - Into The fire - Duane Schults Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
02 April 2019 02:20:03 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ------ Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ IntoThe Fire - Duane Schultz ----- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
02 April 2019 02:06:38 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ------ Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ IntoThe Fire - Duane Schultz ----- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
02 April 2019 01:38:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ------ Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ IntoThe Fire - Duane Schultz ----- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
31 March 2019 03:59:37 Kickapoo Changes to role and biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 20:42:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 20:33:48 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 09:16:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 09:01:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 08:39:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 07:57:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
19 March 2019 08:45:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
19 March 2019 06:07:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:16:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:09:03 Kickapoo Changes to aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:05:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography and aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:00:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 12:56:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography and aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 04:01:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 11:01:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 10:39:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 10:30:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 10:16:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 09:48:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 09:19:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 02:50:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:43:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:36:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:28:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:13:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 20:14:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

loesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 19:58:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 19:43:25 Kickapoo Changes to role and biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 19:35:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:37:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:28:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:24:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:05:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 02:42:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
07 March 2019 08:59:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
07 March 2019 08:17:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
03 March 2019 02:40:27 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
03 March 2019 02:38:24 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
03 March 2019 02:30:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 March 2019 02:18:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 March 2019 01:27:11 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 March 2019 00:14:07 Kickapoo Changes to person associations
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet Gen, Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 February 2019 04:44:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen Hoyt Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
26 February 2019 13:26:03 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti : Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
25 February 2019 09:26:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti : Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
25 February 2019 09:17:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti : Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 04:30:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Jr - History,net Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 04:15:02 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Jr - History,net Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 04:09:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Jr - History,net Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 01:04:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr. - Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 00:15:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr. - Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
21 February 2019 22:17:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy of A Disaster - Hoyt Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
21 February 2019 03:32:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 February 2019 21:30:33 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
19 February 2019 21:18:43 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
19 February 2019 07:09:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 06:18:15 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 06:10:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:52:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S, Vandenberg, Jr. Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:30:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Historynet - Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr. Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:18:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
16 February 2019 04:21:40 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
16 February 2019 04:01:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
15 February 2019 10:17:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
15 February 2019 10:08:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
15 February 2019 09:30:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:45:53 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:43:02 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:36:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:30:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:27:01 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:25:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 22:46:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 17:40:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 17:34:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 17:02:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 16:58:57 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 10:12:27 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 10:06:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 09:56:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 09:25:03 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 13:43:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 13:20:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 00:24:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 00:10:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:56:24 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:39:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:23:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Persdonal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:17:51 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:13:26 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:10:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:08:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 22:45:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 22:42:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 21:57:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 05:41:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 05:33:38 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 05:04:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:27:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:24:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:21:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:19:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
23 January 2019 05:48:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
23 January 2019 05:05:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
23 January 2019 04:45:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal papers

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 05:00:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 04:50:51 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill personal archives

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 04:39:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 04:15:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 06:53:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 06:28:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 06:07:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 05:33:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:57:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:47:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:32:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:05:29 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 05:35:46 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 01:54:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 04:02:09 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 03:57:50 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 03:45:55 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 03:18:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:53:43 Kickapoo Changes to person associations and unit associations
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal collections

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:38:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collection

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:07:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and personal collection

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:05:12 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collection

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:02:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collections

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 07:08:53 Kickapoo Changes to biography and person associations
Sources

Black Subday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 06:56:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 06:50:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

black sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 01:14:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 November 2018 04:17:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 November 2018 03:55:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 November 2018 02:42:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:24:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:19:02 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:17:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:13:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:10:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 13:59:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 13:50:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 08:42:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 08:33:40 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 October 2018 05:33:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
17 October 2018 05:30:09 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
15 October 2018 03:38:41 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
15 October 2018 03:24:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
12 October 2018 04:29:26 Kickapoo Changes to media associations
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
12 October 2018 03:32:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
11 October 2018 01:03:38 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
11 October 2018 00:44:54 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
04 October 2018 03:20:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
04 October 2018 03:09:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
25 September 2018 16:06:15 Kickapoo Changes to awards
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 20:20:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 20:10:46 Kickapoo Changes to biography
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Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 19:37:41 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 18:12:35 Kickapoo Changes to role
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 18:08:59 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 17:57:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:27:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:21:25 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:11:23 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 September 2018 10:53:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 19:49:34 Kickapoo Changes to nickname and biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 19:44:03 Kickapoo Changes to nickname, biography and awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 18:37:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 09:14:55 Kickapoo Changes to media associations
Sources

Black Sunday-Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 08:54:26 Kickapoo Changes to service number, biography, awards and place associations
Sources

Black Sunday- Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 August 2018 00:15:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 August 2018 00:09:20 Kickapoo Changes to nickname, role, unit associations and aircraft associations
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 August 2018 18:20:58 Kickapoo Created entry with surname, middlename, firstname, nickname, nationality, highest rank, role, person associations, unit associations, place associations, aircraft associations and mission associations
Sources

Black Sunday : Ploesti Michael Hill

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