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John Simmons Young

Military

Lieutenant John S. Young from Dallas Texas was a B-24D Liberator bomber pilot with the 9th Air Force, 98th Bomb Group and the 344th Bombing Squadron, based at Cairo, Egypt, Tobruk, and Benghazi, Libya, in the Mediterranean theatre 1942-3.

He flew on Operation Tidal Wave, the mission to destroy Hitler's oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania in 1943. He was assigned to fly with Group Commander Col. John R. (Killer) Kane in the 98th Bombing Group's lead aircraft, 'Hail Columbia', and they and all of their planes successfully bombed and / or attacked their targets at Ploesti, including the Astra Romano oil refinery, code named, White IV, Target Red at Campina, and also the Columbia Aquila refinery.

In 1943 John Young's regular aircraft was the B-24D # 41-11768 - 'KICKAPOO', which he named after the potent liquor, "Kickapoo Joy Juice" from Al Capp's "Li'l Abner" cartoon. From the time the 98th Bomb Group arrived in North Africa, in July, 1942 to August, 1943, it supported the British Eighth Army in it's westward advance across the North Africa desert to defeat and drive the German army out of North Africa, from Egypt into Libya and Tunisia. The 98th Bombing Group bombed German land targets, troops, tanks, and trucks in the North African desert, shipping in the Mediterranean Sea, harbor installations, enemy ports, and port facilities in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, Crete, and Greece, to cut enemy supply lines to Africa, and to prepare for the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy. The 98th's B-24Ds flew out in small groups, unescorted, and were often attacked by Italian and German fighters. Casualties were heavy.

On one of his early missions, when he was still based in the States in Louisiana, Young bombed and sank a German submarine he caught on the water's surface in the Gulf of Mexico. Later, after moving to North Africa with the 98th Bomb Group, while flying over an Italian harbor he felt his bombardier, who hated the Italians with a vengeance, toggle two bombs into an Italian hospital ship with red crosses on it, as he flew over it. Young knew that ship was off limits, and had been warned not to bomb it. He fully expected to be court martialed when he returned to Benghazi. However, several days later, when he was asked about the bombing and told intelligence what happened, they told him they had information that the ship had been running arms and supplies to the Germans. So, instead of being reprimanded, he and his crew were commended for the sinking ! On April 3, 1943, on a bombing mission over Crete, Lt. Young was forced to leave his formation of B-24s after one of his engines failed and two others began losing power. Not long after leaving, he was attacked by eight enemy ME-109 fighters. Alone, and with failing engines, Young and his crew fought the Germans in a running air battle, eight against one, in a descending defensive spiraling corkscrew maneuver down to the Mediterranean water's surface, trying to rob the fighters of their vertical plane of attack. Once they reached the water's surface with the German fighters in trail making gunnery runs on his B-24. As they approached, Young's tail and waist gunners called the breaks (turns) for him over the intercom to, "Break left, Johnny !" or "Break right, Big John !" so he could time and execute steep evasive turns into the approaching fighters just above the water's surface, so his gunners could make passing shots at the enemy fighters as they flew past the tighter turning American bomber. These tactics worked well enough that Young's gunners shot down three of the attacking fighters and damaged two others before the last three German pilots decided they had had enough and flew away, as John Young turned back toward the closest land at the island of Crete and ditched his smoking, shot up B-24 in the shallow water just off the beach. He and his crew were able to escape from their plane and swam to shore, where they were captured by Turkish soldiers and later released back to the British and returned to Benghazi. For this action, Young and his crew were all awarded Distinguished Flying Cross medals. But they were happy just to be alive.

By the time the large mission, Operation Tidal Wave, was announced, not long after that air fight, Young and his air crew had fought and survived 27 combat missions and had over 300 combat hours logged, more missions than the Army Air Force's 25 mission total requirement to earn a trip home. But the destruction of the oil refineries at Ploesti was viewed as so critical to the war effort that Young and his crew were held over by Col. John Kane, along with many other pilots and crewmen in the 98th Bomb Group, who were badly needed to fly the mission. Last minute staffing changes just before the mission, caused Col. Kane to replace the first copilot assigned to him for the mission, Mission Commander General Uzal Ent, who was well known as a dangerously incompetent pilot. So, Col. Kane chose the more capable and respected, First Lieutenant John Young, to fly as his copilot in Kane's chosen B-24D, 'Hail Columbia', now designated the 98th Bombing Group's element lead bomber for the mission. This reassignment proved quite fortunate for 'KICKAPOO''s former command pilot, Johnny Young and his crew. Kane also reassigned First Lt. Norman Whalen, Young's navigator, Second Lt. Harry Korger, his bombardier, and the rest of 'Kickapoo''s crew to fly with him on the Ploesti mission, including Staff Sergeant Neville C. Benson, waist gunner, First Lieutenant Raymond B. Hubbard, radioman, Sergeant Joseph W. LaBranche, gunner, Technical Sergeant Frederick A. Leard, waist Gunner, Sergeant William Leo, gunner, Staff Sergeant Harvey L. Treace, gunner, Technical Sergeant, Fred Weckessler, flight engineer/top turret gunner, all of whom were seasoned and exceptional airmen. Young often said after the war that HE was the designated command pilot of 'Hail Columbia' on the Ploesti mission, by Col. Kane, and Kane was his copilot. Apparently, Col. Kane had designated Young to start and finish the mission in the left seat, as 'Hail Columbia''s pilot in command, during the mission's takeoff, and on most of the long flight to Ploesti. Then, sometime just before they approached Ploesti and the Romanian refineries, Col. Kane switched seats with his copilot so Kane could take command of 'Hail Columbia', and the four extra fixed forward firing .50 cal machine guns installed in 'Hail Columbia's nose, in order to be fresh for commanding and leading the three bombing groups in his element following him, on the final run into and over the target.

As planning and training for the Ploesti mission progressed, and the day of the mission approached, morale in the 9th Air Force was deteriorating. The mood of the 98th and the other bombing groups was becoming more and more grim. Over time, the men had gradually learned from intelligence, just how heavy and deadly the ground defenses around Ploesti really were, and that Ploesti was the most heavily defended enemy city in Eastern Europe, next to Berlin. They learned what the defensive horrors at Ploesti were with high concrete flak towers, thousands of hidden flak guns, barrage balloons, with hanging cables and explosive charges designed to cut their bombers to pieces or blow them up. They knew there were 250 first class German and Romanian fighter pilots and planes assigned and waiting to defend the city. They already knew that their B-24 bombers were flying fire traps. They knew they would be flying and bombing at very low level, down as low as 20 up to 250 feet, without any fighter support. So they knew that getting hit by flak at low level would effectively rule out any hope of escaping their airplanes before they hit the ground. The men were sick with dysentery and other desert diseases, fatigued and war weary after months of constant combat missions. For over a year, they had been attacking the Italians and Germans over land and at sea, losing airplanes and their friends. Now, instead of looking forward to going home after completing their 25 mission requirement, they were faced with having to fly against a target so dangerous it was becoming viewed as a suicide mission ! Tempers and nerves were fraying. One pilot actually stood up in one of the mission briefings and told the mission commanders, " We've flown all over North Africa, Italy, and the Mediterranean. We've flown every mission, and done everything you asked of us, but I'll be God damned if I will lead my men into certain slaughter at Ploesti ! You can bet your asses my plane will have mechanical trouble on the flight over !" The pilots were drinking and fighting at night over in Benghazi, inflicting serious injuries on themselves and the Australian and British army personnel they found there. Complaints began going up to the staff level. Several American bomber pilots had been injured racing and crashing their German motorcycles around the desert roads and on the Benghazi airfields at night. One American pilot nearly killed himself and several others when he ground looped and crashed a captured German JU-88 light bomber on the airbase, which had been left behind by the Germans and rebuilt into flying condition by the American mechanics. These events convinced the Ploesti mission planners and commanders that something had to be done.

One night just before the mission, Gen. Brereton called the men from all the bombing groups into one of the very large aircraft maintenance tents to give them a final briefing and a closing speech about the mission. After the briefing he added, " I want to address a very serious problem that can affect the execution and even the success of this mission, which may turn out to be the most important mission of this war ! You already know how tough this mission is going to be. You're thinking about home, your families and your children. You're afraid that you won't live to see them again." Ten, he paused and said, "Well, I've got some bad news for you. Forget about going home ! Make your minds over, now, that you are not going home, and you're not going to see your families again ! Put all those memories and those hopes behind you ! Get this straight, and get it straight now ! Stop worrying about living past tomorrow because you're not going to live past tomorrow ! In fact, you're already dead ! You died three years ago when you signed up to fight this war ! If you can't accept that, if you can't accept what we have to do at Ploesti and what the consequences will be for us, then, you will not be able do your job, and and you will not be able to accomplish your mission, which is critical to winning this war for the people back home that you are fighting for !" Then he paused again and said, "You have some time tonight. So take some time and think about what I just told you. If you need to, write your families, and tell them whatever you need to say to them before we fly to Ploesti. But, if you can't accept what I just said, if you can't make peace it and what we have to do, come see me before tomorrow morning, and we will relieve you of your duties, and we will find someone who can ! Finally, I want you all to know and fully understand how important this mission is. If all of you do your jobs and bomb your targets tomorrow, it will be worth it, even if we lose every airplane !" Then, the men were dismissed and filed out quietly. But they knew there weren't any replacements to speak of. And many of them feared being left behind as much as they feared going on the mission. But none of them knew, then, that before the next day would be over, 446 of them would be dead, starting with the replacement crewmen in Lt. John Young's B-24D, the 'KICKAPOO'.

Col. John Kane wrote about that night after Brereton's speech in his autobiography about the war and the mission. He wrote how shocked and sad the men were as they filed out of the maintenance tent, how quiet and dark the mood was over the entire airbase that night. Few men slept very well, if at all. Kane wrote how men could be heard crying in their tents here and there. They were sick and worn out, mentally, emotionally, and physically spent. Now they were being asked to give everything they had left, including their lives. Col. Kane had been in on the intelligence, planning, and the training for the mission from the beginning. That night he went out alone to his regular thinking place out on the air base and sat under the stars for a long time. He was among those convinced he was not going to survive the mission. So were, pretty much, the rest of 'KICKAPOO''s crew, who were now 'Hail Columbia''s officers, including John Young, Harry Korger, and Norman Whalen, all of whom wrote as much to their families. Kane wrote farewell letters to his wife and to his parents. Young wrote to his parents. He had no one else to say goodbye to. Weeks earlier, his mother had written him that his high school friend and sweetheart had married the son of a wealthy oilman back in Texas. That night was a dark one for the men of the 98th and for the men of all of the other groups assigned to fly to Ploesti. And it was a very dark one for First Lieutenant John Young. Even before he had come to North Africa, he had hoped and dreamed that he would be able to survive the war to go home and marry his best girl back in Dallas, Texas. Now, all those hopes and dreams he had for any of those things were gone with Brereton's speech. He resigned himself to whatever would come. That night he wrote his parents about the coming mission. "I believe the mission will be worth it", he wrote, "even if I don't come home."

The morning of the mission, during the mass take off in the dark for Ploesti, things went bad for the replacement crew in John Young's regular airplane, the B-24, 'KICKAPOO' ! Like all of the planes flying to Ploesti, 'KICKAPOO' was grossly overloaded with extra guns, extra gas and gas tanks in it's bomb bays, extra ammo, and bombs, and it needed all four engines running at full power just to be able to take off and climb out of ground effect with it's heavy load. After a long takeoff roll, 'KICKAPOO''s #4 engine failed just after breaking ground, a victim of the desert sand. Then, shortly thereafter, #4 caught on fire, and, minutes later, two more engines began losing power, causing the pilot, Lt. Robert Nespor, to crash in flames, killing, himself, his copilot, Lt. John Riley, and all but two of the rest of the crew, as they fought to save their crippled, but valuable, ship and bring it back in for a landing on the airbase's runway. They were the first casualties of the Ploesti mission, before it had even started. But they would not be the last.

After the long flight over the Mediterranean, as Col. Kane and Lt. Young in 'Hail Columbia' led the 98th Bomb Group, "The Pyramiders", and the following 44th Bomb Group, the "Flying Eight Balls" into the Ploesti area, they had lost sight of Col. Jack Wood and the 389th "Sky Scorpions" who had gotten ahead of them in the clouds before they closed in on the target. As they approached their first initial point coming into Ploesti, the situation ahead was even worse than they could have imagined. Flying very low, now, between 20 and 50 feet off the ground on the run into Ploesti, as they began taking ground fire, and began shooting at Ploesti's outlying flak guns, Kane and Young could see ahead and off to their right, what looked like dark thunderstorm clouds and lightning over Ploesti ! But, in fact, their principal assigned target, the Astra Romano Refinery, code named, White IV, was on fire, pouring boiling black smoke into the sky, as it was already being attacked and bombed by the 93rd Bomb Group, who had come in from the south and were bombing ahead of them. What looked like thunder clouds and lightning over Ploesti from farther away, was the smoke over the already fiercely burning oil tanks and refineries of White IV, obscured by the black smoke from huge oil fires and explosions caused by the 93rd's bombs. As the planes of the 98th got closer, John Kane looking out of his windscreen at his ground checkpoints into his target, said, "Good God, Johnny, look at that !" Now, Kane, John Young, Col. Leon Johnson, the leader of the 44th Bombing Group, off to his right side, Lt. Robert Sternfels, command pilot of 'The Sandman' in the 345th Squadron just behind 'Hail Columbia', and all of the pilots following them, could see what they were facing - not only, the full effects of the fully alerted German anti-aircraft defenses already shooting at the attacking 93rd Bomb Group's B-24s, but also, now, huge fires, explosions and secondary explosions caused by the bombs dropped by the 93rd Bomb Group's leader Col. Addison Baker, Major Ramsey Potts, and Lt. John Palm, with Col. Walter Stewart, and others from the 376th Bombing Group following behind them, who were also bombing White IV, and the area around it, blocks of which were now covered with smoke and flames shooting hundreds of feet into the air, and huge explosions from the 93rd's delayed action 500 and 1000 pound bombs, exploding ahead of the 98th, and even underneath them, as their entire huge element of planes, all in formation, began their coordinated formation turn into their heavily compromised target, at twenty feet altitude, and pushed their throttles to war emergency power, and 190 miles per hour.

South of them and heading straight for them, Maj. Walter Stewart in his B-24D, 'Utah Man' had just taken over leading the 93rd Bomb Group after his leader, Col. Addison Baker and his copilot, Major John Jerstad in their B-24, 'Hell's Wench', were shot down ahead of him and killed just minutes before, over the Columbia Aquila refinery, as the 93rd bombed Kane's target, White IV, ahead of Kane's 98th Bomb Group, and completely out of the attack plan. After bombing White IV, Major Stewart, in his B-24D, 'Utah Man', and the rest of the 93rd's planes following him, converged with, and flew right through the 98th's approaching formation in the chaos created by a catastrophically wrong turn away from Ploesti that had been ordered by Mission Commander, Gen. Uzal Ent, and executed by his pilot, Col. Keith Compton, in the B-24, 'Teggie Ann', leading the 93rd and the 376th Bomb Group's formation, also south of Ploesti.

Still, Col. Kane in 'Hail Columbia', Col. Leon Johnson, in his plane, 'Suzie Q', and the rest of the 98th "Pyramiders", and Col. Leon Johnson's 44th "Flying 8 Balls" Bombing Groups, without discussion or hesitation, continued on, following their attack plan into Ploesti and into White IV's wall of smoke and the burning hell of the flames, explosions, and flak guns south of Ploesti, all of them, determined to accomplish their mission, or "die trying", as both Col. Kane and Col. Addison Baker had promised their crews the day before ! Baker, and his copilot, Major John Jerstad, and their crew did "die trying" when their bomber, 'Hell's Wench', was hit multiple times by the deadly flak rounds, caught on fire, and crashed in flames at the Columbia Aquila refinery, killing everyone on board their airplane.

All of this madness was caused, in part, because south and east of Ploesti, Mission Commander Gen. Ent had deliberately failed to continue flying north toward Ploesti at his second initial point outside the city ! Instead of staying on course north to bomb his assigned targets, he had ordered his pilot, Col. Keith Compton in their B-24, 'Teggie Ann' to turn east towards Bucharest, and he refused to answer the desperate radio calls from Maj. Ramsey Potts and Maj. Walter Stewart in 'Utah Man' just behind him in the 93rd Bomb Group, and the calls on his intercom from his own navigator, Capt. Harold Wicklund, warning Compton and Ent that they had made a disastrously wrong turn AWAY from Ploesti ! Col. Baker, behind them, had also seen the wrong turn and quickly decided to attack Ploesti on his own, just like he had said he would, and deliberately led the 93rd Bomb Group north, away from the rest of the 376th, toward the refineries at Ploesti ! Major Walter Stewart and Ramsey Potts were also both in shock and disbelief at what they had just seen Ent and Compton do, and also disobeyed their attack plan orders to stay with Ent and the rest of the 376th Bomb Group ! They also turned north and followed Col. Baker, all of them also determined to attack Ploesti on their own initiative in spite of Compton's inexplicable, wrong turn, away from their target.

But Col. Compton with General Ent in 'Teggie Ann', twenty minutes after having turned east toward Bucharest, and still leading the 376th planes that were still following them, were circling around Ploesti east of the city, instead of flying their attack plan. They could see off to their left, thousands of the green German flak tracer rounds streaming into the sky. They could see the smoke, explosions, and the fires of the exploding bombs dropped by the 93rd Bomb Group. And they could see the 93rd's planes, and also the 98th, and the 44th Bombing Groups' planes being attacked by fighter planes, and being shot out of the sky by the defending German flak guns and airplanes. And they could see the B-24 bombers burning, exploding, and crashing into the ground south of Ploesti's refinery area.

Major Norman Appold in 'G.I. Ginnie', his wingman, Lt. John Palm, piloting 'Brewery Wagon', and two other ships from the 376th Bomb Group's formation had also seen the mistaken turn that Compton and Ent had made and had quickly decided that they, too, would attack Ploesti on their own. So they also disobeyed their orders to stay with their assigned formation, and they also left the main 376th Bomb Group, and turned their planes left and back to the west, with their four plane section, looking for targets of opportunity to bomb. On their run into the refinery area, they decided to attack Target White II, the Concordia Vega Refinery, Col. Addison Baker's assigned target. After bombing White II, Major Appold's surviving planes, along with Major Potts and the 93rd's planes, now fleeing the area north, also, passed through Killer Kane’s 98th and 44th Bomb Groups still heading for White IV. The confusion resulted in ongoing moments of terror and violent maneuvering as three layers of formations of B-24 bombers from the 98th, the 44th, the 93rd, and Major Appold's planes from the 376th Bomb Group, all desperately tried to avoid mid air collisions with each other's planes, as the converging planes all flew through Col. Kane's formation at low level from two different directions in the mad confusion of the broken mission that Operation Tidal Wave had become.

Lt. John Palm had drawn a "jinxed" plane for the mission, the 'Brewery Wagon', and was also one of the rogue pilots from the 376th Bomb Group, who elected to turn away from Bucharest toward Ploesti, and was also heading for Ploesti and targets of opportunity at treetop level. But he never made it that far. He took several direct hits by the deadly flak guns and had to release his bombs just to keep his staggering ship in the air, when he suffered a direct 88mm explosive flak hit on 'Brewery Wagon''s nose, instantly killing his navigator and his bombardier, destroying flight control wires, and taking out two engines. Now, with his plane failing, on fire, and himself seriously wounded, with his right leg nearly blown off, and being attacked by ME-109s, Lt. Palm crash landed his failing B-24 into an open field, to be captured alive, along with only three other surviving crew members. When Pete Hughes' of the 389th Bomb Group's B-24 was set aflame by flak, after bombing Target Red, with his wing on fire, he pulled his plane up to try to save as many of his crewmen as possible, by giving them enough altitude to bail out, and, then, tried to crash land his burning ship, but ran out of luck when a wing folded, crashing his ship in flames killing him and all those left on board. Col. Jack Wood leading the 398th "Sky Scorpions" and Pete Hughes had gotten ahead of Kane on the run into Ploesti, but both found and bombed their target, "Target Red", the Campina refinery losing four of his group, including Lt. "Pete" Hughes, shot down and killed over his target.

Col. Kane and Lt. John Young, leading the 98th and the 44th Bomb Groups, and their followers, made their final sweeping group turn into their bombing run, and began making more large sweeping turns, weaving back and forth individually and in groups at 190 miles per hour, to fly around and between the smoke pouring from the huge fires, explosions, and other obstacles in their way, as they pressed home their attack, looking for the way points to their target, the Astro Romano refinery complex. All this time the pilots and gunners were strafing the flak guns ahead of them with their four extra fixed .50 cal. machine guns, and the two guns on each side of 'Hail Columbia''s nose, manned by the nose gunners Capt. Korger and Lt. Whalen, and from the gunner in the top turret modified to fire forward, and out of the sides, and back of their B-24. All this time, Col. Kane and Lt. Young were working overtime just to keep their airplane flying. Kane wrote that it took all of his and Young's combined arm strength to manhandle 'Hail Columbia', turning hard between and around the obstacles ahead of them, and to control the pitching, bucking, rolling, shaking, and vibrating monster that 'Hail Columbia' became over their target at low altitude, in and out of the huge updrafts from the flying through White IV's airspace with flames, smoke, and explosions all around and under them, avoiding many fixed and moving obstructions in their way, including the other American B-24 bombers flying through their formation from two different directions. At the same time, Kane and Young could see their friends, including Col. Addison Baker in 'Hell's Wench' crashing in flames off to his front and right side, and others being shot down around them, as they, too, were being hit hard now by the deadly flak rounds, with other planes catching on fire simply by flying through the 300 foot high flames, hitting the barrage balloon cables, and being blown up from both the flak rounds and the explosions from the 93rd's delayed action bombs now exploding under them, with other planes crashing into the oil tanks and the refinery buildings on the ground. As the 93rd's delayed action bombs began exploding in front of and under 'Hail Columbia', Norm Whalen, watching all of this out of his forward nose position, wrote later, "I thought I was going to die right there. I thought we all were. I never thought we could make it out of there alive !" Kane flew 'Hail Columbia' right through a huge column of boiling flames, which reached up even higher than his plane's 200 feet altitude and burned his left arm resting on 'Hail Columbia''s left side sliding window sill. Yet, somehow, the flames did not ignite the gasoline leaking from 'Hail Columbia''s wings and from the gasoline fumes inside it's fuselage. Also, by raw flying skill and by some kind of miracle, John Kane, Johnny Young, and Harry Korger, their bombardier, were able to locate, line up on, and drop their bombs on the Astra Romano refinery complex. But 'Hail Columbia', like all the rest of the 44th's and 98th's planes, was still being hit hard by the German flak guns shooting at them from point blank range. A direct flak hit destroyed their #4 engine. Young secured the dead engine and feathered #4 engine's propeller, when their #3 engine's propeller was also hit and holed by a small caliber round and began vibrating. The #2 engine on the left side was hit and damaged, but still running. With things going bad for Kane, 'Hail Columbia' and her crew, with one engine out, and two more damaged coming out of White IV heading into the heavy flak area south of Ploesti, somehow, the Texans of 'Hail Columbia' were alive and still flying, although several crewmen were injured by the flak ! As they began leaving the refinery area behind, they had been flying through the destruction over the greater Ploesti area for almost half an hour, the longest half hour of their lives.

In marked contrast, after having been in the area for over 20 minutes, Col. Compton, Gen. Ent, and the main force of the 376th, who stayed with them, finally, dropped their bombs harmlessly over the hills north of Ploesti and headed west for home, undamaged and intact.

But not so intact were the men and the planes of the rest of the 98th, the 44th, the 389th Bombing Groups, and the rogue planes from the 93rd and the 376th Bombing Group led by Major Norman Appold, Major Ramsey Potts, and Lt. John Palm, that had been thoroughly decimated by the German defenses over their targets. As these remnant survivors were still trying to escape the area alive, they were attacked by the higher flying German and Romanian fighters, who dove down on them and shot down even several more of the American bombers. Young wrote later, "We had ME-109s and 110s doing lazy eights all over us.", as Kane and John Young again had to execute steep defensive turns to throw off the German fighter planes' aim, and they did avoid being hit by any of them. Several crippled survivor planes, including Lt. Robert Sternfels in 'The Sandman', Col. Walter Stewart in 'Utah Man', and Lt. Gib Hadley in 'Hadley's Harem' joined up with 'Hail Columbia' and it's excellent lead navigator, Lt. Norman "The Baron" Whalen, who navigated the group of crippled survivors all the way out of Ploesti, south and west, on over the Pindus mountains to the Mediterranean Sea, then, all the way south to the British air base at Nicosia, on the Greek island of Cyprus, where the few planes, still flying, landed, minus Lt. Gib Hadley, who lost the fight with his damaged airplane and crashed into the Aegean Sea, killing himself and all but three of his crew. The rest of those, who, with Kane and Young, had made it to the Cyprus air base, landed, and 'Hail Columbia''s two exhausted pilots crash landed their crippled bomber on the Nicosia airbase's runway after dark. Somehow, miraculously, they had survived the mission to Ploesti !

Of the 177 planes that took off from Benghazi, only 88 of them made it back to Benghazi, 55 of those with damage so severe they would never fly again. Of the 47 planes of Kane's 98th and 44th Bomb Groups that launched to Ploesti, only 27 B-24s returned from the mission. Seventeen of Kane's 98th's and the 44th Bomb Group's planes were shot down over Ploesti. Two went down at sea on the way to Ploesti with the loss of their crews. Seven B-24s turned back from the mission with mechanical trouble. One plane, Lt. Young's B-24D, 'KICKAPOO', crashed in flames on takeoff at Lete, Benghazi, killing most of it's replacement crew. And many others crashed on the long flight home, like Gib Hadley, killing him and most of his crew. The 98th and the 44th Bomb Groups suffered 46 percent casualties on the Ploesti mission. A total of 446 American airmen on the mission were killed in action, with 220 more airmen, injured, captured, or missing. Five hundred and thirty two total crewmen were captured, killed, injured, or lost from all causes.

For John Young, Ploesti was his 28th and last combat mission of the war. But, for the men who died, and even for the men who survived the mission, "Black Sunday" was a very appropriate name given to that terrible day, August, 1, 1943, by historian Michael Hill, a day that saw so many of the U.S. Army Air Corps' American flyer's killed, wounded, and lost, having suffered the most casualties ever, on a single U.S. Army Air Force bombing mission up to that time.

For his part in leading his three groups successfully to bomb their targets on the mission, Col. John Kane received one of 5 Medals Of Honor awarded for the mission, 3 of them to men, like Col. Addison Baker, Major John Jerstad, and Pete Hughes, who paid for them with their lives. For his part in the mission, Lt. Johnny Young received one of 41 Silver Star Medals awarded for the mission and another oak leaf cluster to his Distinguished Flying Cross, with 1,320 total DFC Medals awarded, one to every single man who flew on the mission and survived, and to those who flew on the mission and also paid for their medals with their lives, as did 27 year old Lt. Robert Nespor and Lt. John C. Riley, the two young pilots who died bravely trying to save 'KICKAPOO' in Johnny Young's place. Lt. Norman Whalen received one of 50 Distinguished Service Cross medals awarded for the mission, for his bravery and his excellent lead navigating on the mission, as did Col. Walter Stewart for his leadership after his Group Leader Col. Addison Baker was shot down and killed, and one DFC also awarded to pilot Lt. Robert Sternfels in 'The Sandman, who both landed safely, one just ahead of and the other behind 'Hail Columbia' at Nicosia, Cyprus, and who gave both Col. Kane and Lt. Young rides back to Benghazi after the mission.

After the mission, John Young returned home to America, was promoted to Captain, and served on a war bond tour across America. He continued to serve as a flying officer until he was honorably discharged from the Army Air Corps in 1946 with the rank of Major. He became a vice president of the First National Bank in Dallas for many years, and later became the president of Herrin Trucking Company. John Young died in 1983.

Service

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  • Lloyd Hughes

    Military | Second Lieutenant | Pilot | 389th Bomb Group
    Pilot Killed in Action (KIA) during Ploesti raid, 1 August 1943. Medal of Honor winner — bombed target and held formation after aircraft B-24 42-40753 'Ole Kickapoo' had been gravely damaged.

  • John Kane

    Military | Colonel | Commanding Officer, Command Pilot | 98th Bomb Group
    John Riley Kane (January 5, 1907 – May 29, 1996) was a colonel in the United States Army Air Corps and later the United States Air Force. He received the U.S. military's highest decoration, the Congressional Medal of Honor, in World War II, for his...

  • Harold Korger

    Military | Colonel | Bombardier Navigator | 98th Bomb Group
    Lt. Harold Korger was a bombardier in the 344th Bombardment Squadron, 98th Bomb Group, 9th Air Force. He flew on the famous mission, Operation Tidal Wave, Aug 1, 1943, to knock out the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania. ...

  • Robert Nespor

    Military | First Lieutenant | Command Pilot | 98th Bomb Group
    . ...

  • John Palm

    Military | First Lieutenant | Pilot | 376th Bomb Group
    B-24

Show more

Units served with

  • 9th Air Force
  • 344th Bomb Squadron

    344th Bomb Squadron


    Established as a B-24 Liberator heavy bomb squadron and trained by Third Air Force. Deployed to Egypt in June 1942 over South Atlantic Transport Route transiting from Morrison Field, Florida though the Caribbean to Brazil; performed trans-Atlantic...

  • 98th Bomb Group

    98th Bomb Group

    Group
    The 98th trained for bombardment missions with B-24 Liberators during the first half of 1942. ...

Aircraft

  • 41-11613 'Florine Ju Ju' - 'Liberandos 71' - '71 Teggie Ann' - '71 The Blue Streak'

    B-24 Liberator
    B-24D #41-11613 'The Blue Streak' of 514th Bomb Squadron, the 376th Bomb Group, 9th AF. Originally named 'Florine Ju Ju' then '71 Liberandos', '71 Teggie Ann', and last '71 The Blue Streak'. She was a member of the HALPRO group that eventually became...

  • 41-24311 'Hadley's Harem'

    B-24 Liberator
    The B-24D, named 'Hadley's Harem' was Lt. Gilbert Hadley's personal airplane and the one he flew on the mission to destroy Hitler's oil refineries at Ploesti Romania in 1943. ...

  • 41-11825 'Hail Columbia' ~ 'Grumpy' ~ 'Little Chief Big Dog'

    B-24 Liberator
    This aircraft originally served in the 9th Air Force, the 98th Bomb Group, and the 344th Bomb Squadron as 'HAIL COLUMBIA'. It was 344th's CO Col. John R. Kane's personal aircraft until Kane became the 98th Bomb Group CO and turned it over to Herman ...

  • 41-11768 'Kickapoo'

    B-24 Liberator
    The B-24D Liberator #41-11768, 'KICKAPOO', was piloted by Lt. John S. Young from Dallas, Texas as part of the 9th Air Force, the 98th Bomb Group, and the 344th Bombing Squadron, which arrived in North Africa in early 1943. This airplane and was...

Missions

  • Operation Tidal Wave

    1 August 1943
    Operation TIDAL WAVE. B24D Liberators attack the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania. The bombers flew low to avoid radar detection and dropped time delayed bombs. Out of the 177 B-24s that took part in the raid 167 managed to attack their targets. 57 B...

Associated Place

  • Fayid

    Military site : airfield

  • Mellaha

    Military site : airfield

  • Berca

    Military site : airfield

  • Lete

    Military site : airfield

Events

Event Location Date

Revisions

Date Contributor Update
05 December 2019 21:06:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - An Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
05 December 2019 17:37:55 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - An Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 November 2019 17:26:15 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - An Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
08 November 2019 22:32:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - An Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
25 October 2019 23:37:01 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - An Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
08 September 2019 09:10:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - An Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
08 September 2019 09:07:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - An Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
08 September 2019 08:33:54 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
08 September 2019 00:38:22 Kickapoo Changes to person associations and place associations
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
21 August 2019 09:04:48 Kickapoo Changes to media associations
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
21 August 2019 08:59:57 Kickapoo Changes to media associations
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
21 August 2019 00:26:36 Kickapoo Changes to media associations
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
21 August 2019 00:20:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
21 August 2019 00:10:56 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 August 2019 23:57:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 August 2019 23:28:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - An Anatomy of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young, Jr. - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 August 2019 22:15:12 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young, Jr.

Date Contributor Update
18 August 2019 10:47:41 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young, Jr.

Date Contributor Update
18 August 2019 10:45:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young, Jr.

Date Contributor Update
18 August 2019 10:40:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young, Jr.

Date Contributor Update
13 August 2019 02:57:43 Kickapoo Changes to aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young, Jr.

Date Contributor Update
13 August 2019 02:51:46 Kickapoo Changes to biography and person associations
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young, Jr.

Date Contributor Update
11 August 2019 12:02:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young, Jr.

Date Contributor Update
11 August 2019 09:37:19 Kickapoo Changes to nickname, role, biography, person associations, unit associations and place associations
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young, Jr.

Date Contributor Update
04 August 2019 10:42:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
27 July 2019 22:03:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
27 July 2019 04:02:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
25 July 2019 08:13:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
25 July 2019 08:09:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
25 July 2019 07:55:09 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
25 July 2019 07:36:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
25 July 2019 06:51:40 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
08 July 2019 07:36:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
08 July 2019 07:26:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

natomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
08 July 2019 07:03:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
08 July 2019 06:48:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
07 July 2019 05:28:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
07 July 2019 05:16:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
06 July 2019 11:46:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com ---- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
06 July 2019 11:19:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
06 July 2019 10:36:22 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
06 July 2019 08:31:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
03 July 2019 09:02:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
03 July 2019 08:49:57 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Shulz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
03 July 2019 08:37:11 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Shulz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
03 July 2019 08:08:29 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Shulz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
03 July 2019 07:45:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Shulz ---- TogetherWeServed.com ---- FindAGrave.com

Date Contributor Update
01 July 2019 06:59:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
01 July 2019 06:55:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography and person associations
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
01 July 2019 06:50:22 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 June 2019 01:27:56 Kickapoo Changes to person associations and unit associations
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 June 2019 01:19:56 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
11 June 2019 06:01:15 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
11 June 2019 05:08:56 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Together We Served.com ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
10 June 2019 22:38:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.comg

Date Contributor Update
10 June 2019 22:03:40 Kickapoo Changes to aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
09 June 2019 01:42:34 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
09 June 2019 01:36:24 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
09 June 2019 01:01:48 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
09 June 2019 00:14:54 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
09 June 2019 00:02:30 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
08 June 2019 23:42:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young FindaGrave.com Together We Served.com

Date Contributor Update
08 June 2019 22:38:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Into The Fire - Duane Schultz Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives - John S. Young TogetherWeServed.com Findagrave.com

Date Contributor Update
08 June 2019 22:35:57 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Into The Fire - Duane Schultz Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives - John S. Young TogetherWeServed.com Findagrave.com

Date Contributor Update
27 May 2019 10:25:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography and person associations
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The Fire - Duane Schultz Personal Archives - John S. Young Findagrave.com Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg

Date Contributor Update
27 May 2019 09:46:51 Kickapoo Changes to biography and awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Into The fire - Duane Schultz Personal archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
29 April 2019 21:53:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Brandednberg --- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
29 April 2019 20:44:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
29 April 2019 20:11:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster ---- Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
26 April 2019 22:52:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster ---- Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
26 April 2019 19:13:01 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Brandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
22 April 2019 22:30:41 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Brandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- John S. Young - Personal Archives ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
22 April 2019 20:25:01 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
22 April 2019 18:54:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 April 2019 22:39:22 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz ---- John S. Young - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 April 2019 22:26:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
11 April 2019 04:21:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
11 April 2019 04:08:43 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
10 April 2019 11:07:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Back Sunday - Michael Hill ----- Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
10 April 2019 10:05:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Brandenberg - Black Sunday - Michael Hill - Into The fire - Duane Schults Personal Archives - John Young

Date Contributor Update
02 April 2019 02:20:03 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ------ Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ IntoThe Fire - Duane Schultz ----- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
02 April 2019 02:06:38 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ------ Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ IntoThe Fire - Duane Schultz ----- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
02 April 2019 01:38:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

The Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ------ Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ IntoThe Fire - Duane Schultz ----- Personal Archives - John S. Young

Date Contributor Update
31 March 2019 03:59:37 Kickapoo Changes to role and biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 20:42:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 20:33:48 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 09:16:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 09:01:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 08:39:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill ------ Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
23 March 2019 07:57:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
19 March 2019 08:45:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
19 March 2019 06:07:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:16:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:09:03 Kickapoo Changes to aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:05:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography and aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 13:00:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 12:56:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography and aircraft associations
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
14 March 2019 04:01:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 11:01:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 10:39:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 10:30:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 10:16:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 09:48:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 09:19:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill ---- Into The Fire - Ploesti - The Most Fateful Mission Of Word War II - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
13 March 2019 02:50:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg ---- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:43:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:36:35 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:28:45 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
12 March 2019 05:13:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz -- Find A Grave

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 20:14:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

loesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 19:58:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 19:43:25 Kickapoo Changes to role and biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 19:35:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:37:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:28:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:24:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 03:05:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
08 March 2019 02:42:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill -- Into The Fire - Duane Schultz

Date Contributor Update
07 March 2019 08:59:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
07 March 2019 08:17:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
03 March 2019 02:40:27 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
03 March 2019 02:38:24 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg
-- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
03 March 2019 02:30:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster by Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 March 2019 02:18:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 March 2019 01:27:11 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of A Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 March 2019 00:14:07 Kickapoo Changes to person associations
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet Gen, Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 February 2019 04:44:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen Hoyt Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
26 February 2019 13:26:03 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti : Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
25 February 2019 09:26:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti : Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
25 February 2019 09:17:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti : Anatomy of Disaster - HistoryNet - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 04:30:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Jr - History,net Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 04:15:02 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Jr - History,net Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 04:09:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Jr - History,net Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 01:04:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr. - Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
22 February 2019 00:15:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy Of Disaster - Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr. - Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
21 February 2019 22:17:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti - Anatomy of A Disaster - Hoyt Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
21 February 2019 03:32:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 February 2019 21:30:33 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
19 February 2019 21:18:43 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
19 February 2019 07:09:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 06:18:15 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 06:10:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S. Vandenberg Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:52:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Hoyt S, Vandenberg, Jr. Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:30:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Ploesti: Anatomy of a Disaster - Historynet - Hoyt S. Vandenberg, Jr. Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 February 2019 05:18:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
16 February 2019 04:21:40 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
16 February 2019 04:01:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
15 February 2019 10:17:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
15 February 2019 10:08:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
15 February 2019 09:30:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:45:53 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:43:02 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:36:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:30:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:27:01 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 23:25:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
11 February 2019 22:46:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 17:40:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 17:34:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 17:02:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
04 February 2019 16:58:57 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 10:12:27 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 10:06:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 09:56:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
02 February 2019 09:25:03 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 13:43:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 13:20:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 00:24:47 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
28 January 2019 00:10:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:56:24 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:39:23 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:23:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Persdonal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:17:51 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:13:26 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:10:39 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 23:08:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 22:45:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 22:42:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 21:57:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 05:41:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 05:33:38 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 05:04:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal Archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:27:06 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:24:37 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:21:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
27 January 2019 01:19:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal archives

Date Contributor Update
23 January 2019 05:48:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
23 January 2019 05:05:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
23 January 2019 04:45:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill Personal papers

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 05:00:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 04:50:51 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill personal archives

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 04:39:04 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
25 December 2018 04:15:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 06:53:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 06:28:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 06:07:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
20 December 2018 05:33:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:57:16 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:47:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:32:58 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 06:05:29 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 05:35:46 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
19 December 2018 01:54:21 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 04:02:09 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 03:57:50 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 03:45:55 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
14 December 2018 03:18:52 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal archives

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:53:43 Kickapoo Changes to person associations and unit associations
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - personal collections

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:38:59 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collection

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:07:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and personal collection

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:05:12 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collection

Date Contributor Update
30 November 2018 03:02:08 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill - and from personal collections

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 07:08:53 Kickapoo Changes to biography and person associations
Sources

Black Subday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 06:56:05 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 06:50:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

black sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
28 November 2018 01:14:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 November 2018 04:17:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 November 2018 03:55:20 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 November 2018 02:42:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:24:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:19:02 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:17:13 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:13:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 14:10:10 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 13:59:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 13:50:31 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 08:42:32 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
13 November 2018 08:33:40 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 October 2018 05:33:19 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
17 October 2018 05:30:09 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
15 October 2018 03:38:41 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
15 October 2018 03:24:42 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill The Dallas Morning News

Date Contributor Update
12 October 2018 04:29:26 Kickapoo Changes to media associations
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
12 October 2018 03:32:49 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
11 October 2018 01:03:38 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
11 October 2018 00:44:54 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
04 October 2018 03:20:28 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
04 October 2018 03:09:36 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
25 September 2018 16:06:15 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 20:20:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 20:10:46 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
24 September 2018 19:37:41 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 18:12:35 Kickapoo Changes to role
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 18:08:59 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
23 September 2018 17:57:44 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:27:17 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:21:25 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 September 2018 09:11:23 Kickapoo Changes to awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 September 2018 10:53:07 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 19:49:34 Kickapoo Changes to nickname and biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 19:44:03 Kickapoo Changes to nickname, biography and awards
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 18:37:00 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 09:14:55 Kickapoo Changes to media associations
Sources

Black Sunday-Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
30 August 2018 08:54:26 Kickapoo Changes to service number, biography, awards and place associations
Sources

Black Sunday- Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 August 2018 00:15:34 Kickapoo Changes to biography
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
17 August 2018 00:09:20 Kickapoo Changes to nickname, role, unit associations and aircraft associations
Sources

Black Sunday - Michael Hill

Date Contributor Update
01 August 2018 18:20:58 Kickapoo Created entry with surname, middlename, firstname, nickname, nationality, highest rank, role, person associations, unit associations, place associations, aircraft associations and mission associations
Sources

Black Sunday : Ploesti Michael Hill

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